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英语原文IntegratedMachineandControlDesignAbstractInthispaper,wedescribeasystematicdesignprocedureforreconfigurablemachinetoolsandtheirassociatedcontrolsystems.Thestartingpointforthedesignisasetofoperationsthatmustbeperformedonagivenpartorpartfamily.Theseoperationsaredecomposedintoasetoffunctionsthatthemachinemustperformandthefunctionsaremappedtomachinemodules,eachofwhichhasanassociatedmachinecontrolmodule.Oncethemachineisconstructedfromasetofmodules,themachinecontrolmodulesareconnected.Anoperationsequencecontrolmodule,userinterfacecontrolmodule,andmodeswitchinglogiccompletethecontroldesign.Theintegrationofthemachineandcontroldesignandthereconfigurabilityoftheresultingmachinetoolaredescribedindetail.I.IntroductionIntodayscompetitivemarkets,manufacturingsystemsmustquicklyrespondtochangingcustomerdemandsanddiminishingproductlifecycles.Traditionaltransferlinesaredesignedforhighvolumeproduction,operateinafixedautomationparadigm,andthereforecannotreadilyaccommodatechangesintheproductdesign.Ontheotherhand,conventionalCNCbasedflexiblemanufacturingsystemoffergeneralizedflexibilitybutaregenerallyslowandexpensivesincetheyarenotoptimizedforanyparticularproductorafamilyofproducts.AneffortattheUniversityofMichiganaimstodevelopthetheoryandenablingtechnologyforreconfigurablemachiningsystems.Insteadofbuildingamachiningsystemfromscratcheachtimeanewpartisneeded,anexistingsystemcanbereconfiguredtoproducethenewpart.Inthispaper,wedescribehowanintegratedmachineandcontroldesignstrategycanresultinmachinetoolswhichcanbequicklyandeasilyconfiguredandreconfigured.Inordertoprovideexactlythefunctionalityandcapacityneededtoprocessafamilyofparts,RMTsaredesignedaroundagivenfamilyofparts.Givenasetofoperationstobeperformed,RMTscanbeconfiguredbyassemblingappropriatemachinemodules.Eachactivemoduleinthelibraryhasacontrolmoduleassociatedwithit.Asthemechanicalmodulesareassembled,thecontrolmoduleswillbeconnectedandthemachinewillbereadytooperate.Extensiveandtimeconsumingspecializedcontrolsystemdesignwillnotberequired.SectionIIdescribeshowthemachineisdesignedfromasetofbasicmachinemodules,ThisresearchwassupportedinpartbytheNSFERCconnectedinawelldefinedfashion,andSectionIIIdescribeshowthecontrolissimilarlyassembledfromalibraryofcontrolmodules.ThismodularconstructionofthemachineandcontrolallowsformanylevelsofreconfigurabilityasdescribedinSectionIV.ThepaperconcludeswithadescriptionoffutureworkinSectionV.II.MachineDesignOngoingworkonmanufacturingsystemconfigurationattheUniversityofMichiganaddressestheproblemofstartingfromapartorpartfamilydescriptionandextractingthemachiningoperationsnecessarytoproducetheparts.Theoperationsaregroupedaccordingtotolerance,orderofexecution,anddesiredcycletimeofthesystem,withtheintentionthateachoperationclustercanbeproducedonasinglemachinetool.TheoperationclusterconsideredhereistodrillasetofholesforthecamtowercapsonV6andV8cylinderheadsshowninFigure1.Theinputtothereconfigurablemachinetooldesignprocedureisthecutterlocationdatageneratedbyaprocessplannerforthisoperationcluster.dataincludespositioninganddrillinginformation.TheRMTdesignprocedureconsistsofthreemainstagestaskclarification,moduleselection,andevaluation.Afterabriefliteraturereview,thesethreestageswillbeoutlinedinthissection.A.RelatedresearchSincereconfigurabilityisarelativelynewconceptinmachiningsystems,thereislittle,ifany,publishedliteratureonthedesignofreconfigurablemachinetools.However,modularmachinetoolshavebeenonthemarketforseveralyears,andsomeofthepublishedarticlesonmodularrobots,modularmachinesandassemblydohavesomerelevancetothedesignofreconfigurablemachinetools.Forexample,ShinnoandItoproposedamethodologyforgeneratingthestructuralconfigurationofmachinetools.Theydecomposedthemachinetoolstructuresintosimplegeometricformse.g.boxes,cylinders,etc.YanandChen21,1extendedthisworktothemachiningcenterstructuraldesign.12adaptedItosmethodformodularmachinetoolsynthesisanddevelopedamethodforenumeratingmachinetoolmodules.ParadisandKhosla15determinedthemodularassemblyconfigurationwhichisoptimallysuitedtoperformaspecifictask.Onthesystemsfront,RogersandBottaci16discussedthesignificanceofreconfigurablemanufacturingsystems,andOwenetal.13developedamodularreconfigurablemanufacturingsystemsynthesisprogramforeducationalpurposes.Inourwork,traditionalmethodsofmotionrepresentationandtopologyi.e.screwtheory,graphtheory,etc.areemployedtocapturethecharacteristicsofRMTs.Thesemathematicalschemesareusedfortopologicalsynthesis,functiondecomposition,andmappingproceduresdetailscanbefoundin9.Figure1B.TaskclarificationThedesignofanRMTbeginswithtaskclarification,whichentailsanalyzingthecutterlocationdatatodeterminethesetoffunctionswhicharenecessarytoaccomplishthedesiredkinematicmotions.Therearethreesteps.First,graphsaregeneratedwhichabstractlyrepresentationPositionFeedSpindleCoolantt1t2t3t4t5t6t7t8Fig.3.Highleveloperationsequence,showingcausaldependenciesandconcurrencies.ThisabstractrepresentationofthesequenceofoperationsisderivedfromtheCLdata,andwillbeusedtodesignthesequencingcontrolthemotions.Thesegraphsarethendecomposedintofunctions,andfinallythefunctionsaremappedontomachinemoduleswhichexistinthelibrary.Agraphrepresentationofthemachinetoolstructureallowsforsystematicenumerationofalternateconfigurationsandalsoprovidesamethodofidentificationofnonisomorphicgraphs.Thegraphrepresentationisalsousedforbookkeepingtoassignmachinemodulestothegraphelements.Agraphconsistsofasetofverticesconnectedtogetherbyedges.Inusingagraphasanabstractrepresentationofamachinetoolstructure,wedefinetwodifferenttypesofverticestype0andtype1.Avertexrepresentsaphysicalobjectwithtwoportseachportrepresentsthelocationontheobjectwhereitcanbeattachedtoaneighboringobject.Atype0vertexhasinputandoutputportsthatareinlinewithrespecttoeachother,whereasatype1vertexhasinputandoutputportsthatareperpendiculartoeachother.Machiningtasksarealsoclassifiedastype0ortype1,dependingonwhetherthetoolisparallelorperpendiculartotheworkpiece.C.ModuleselectionCommerciallyavailablemodulesareselectedfromthemodulelibraryforeachofthefunctionsstructuralaswellaskinematicthatweremappedtothegraphinthetaskclarificationstage.Thedatastoredforeachmoduleinthelibraryincludesthehomogenoustransformationmatrixrepresentingitskinematicorstructuralfunction,thetwistvectorsupplementedbyrangeofmotioninformation,acompliancematrixrepresentingthemodulestiffness,moduleconnectivityinformation,andpowerrequirementsforactivemodulessuchasspindlesandslides.Thefirststepinmoduleselectionistocomparethehomogeneoustransformationmatricesofthemoduleswiththetaskrequirementmatrixsuchthatwhenappropriatemodulesareselectedtomeetthetaskrequirements,theproductofallmodulematricesshouldbeequaltothedesiredtaskmatrixTT1T2Tn.Again,theremaybemanypossiblechoicesofmodulesforagivenstructuralconfiguration.Figure6showshowdifferentslides,spindles,andstructuralelementscanbeassembledaccordingtothegraphofFigure4.Aslidemodule,withitsCADmodelandtransformationmatrix,isshowninFigure7.Itiscapableofonedirectionoflinearmotion,indicatedbythe1variableinitstransformationmatrix.Itsdatabaseentry,showninTableI,storesnotonlyitstransformationmatrixbutalsothemanufacturername,modelnumber,initialposition,powerlevel,andmotiondata.Thetwistvectorisaugmentedbyinformationontheminimum,initial,andmaximumdisplacementofthemodule.TABLEIDatabaseinformationanddocumentationforthemachinemoduleshowninFigure7.ManufacturerSUHNERModelNameUA35ACInitialPosition10002010036600110040001577Twistvector£000010¤TRangeofmotion£1550155¤Max.force5500NCompliancematrix,Etc.Powerrequirements,Connectivityinformation,...
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