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外文翻译---问题解决和决策.doc外文翻译---问题解决和决策.doc

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编号:201311172034157923    类型:共享资源    大小:77.50KB    格式:DOC    上传时间:2013-11-17
  
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Selection1.1PROBLEM-SOLVINGANDDECISION-MAKEINGItishelpfulatthisstagetointroducetheideasofproblemsolving,astructureforwhichwasfirstdescribedbyDewey(1910).ThestagesidentifiedbyJohnDeweywere:Whatistheproblem?Whatarethealternatives?Whichalternativeisbest?YoushouldnowbeinapositiontoidentifyaresemblancebetweenDewey’sthreestagesandthesoftwarelifecycle.Enoughhasbeensaidaboutthelifecycleearlierforustospotadistinctresemblancebetweenthefirststageofproblemdefinitionandourrequirementsanalysisphase.Infactmanyorganizationsusetheterm‘problem’or‘projectdefinition’ratherthan‘requirementsanalysis’.Thefinaltwostagesmaysimilarlybeidentifiedasbeingequivalenttothephasethatwerefertoas‘design’.Amorerecent,butveryrelevantstructurehasbeensuppliedinthecontextofdecision-making(Simon,1960).ProfessorSimonlabelsthestagesofdecision-makingasfollows:Intelligenceactivity,DesignactivityandChoiceactivity.Theterm‘Intelligence’isusedhereinthemilitarysense,i.e.,searchingtheenvironmentforconditionsrequiringadecisiontobemade.‘Design’isconcernedwithinventinganddevelopingpossiblecoursesofaction.Theactivityofselectingaparticularcourseofactionfromthoseavailableisknownas‘chose’.Inthiscaseourrequirementsanalysiscorrespondstotheintelligenceactivity.Althoughthesoftwaredesignerdoesnotneedtosearchtoohardforcircumstancesrequiringadecisiontobemade,theywillnormallybefoundlyingonhisorherdesklabeled‘Specificationofrequirement’.HoweverSimon’suseoftheterm‘Design’differsfromours.WhereasSimonusesthewordtodescribethegenerationofpossiblesolution,weuseitinthesensethatselectionisincludedalso.Thereseemstobesomejustificationforbelievingthatproblem-solving,decision-makingandsoftwareanalysisanddesignshareacommonframework.Anditisnotstretchingthepointtoofartoclaimthatthefirsttwoare,ineffect,exactlythesamethingwhilethelastisjustaparticularinstanceofthisphenomenon.Consequently,weshallpersistinregardingsoftwaredesignasaproblem-solvingactivityandtreatingitassuch.Thismeansthatwemustdevotesomeattentiontothequestionsofgeneratingpossiblesolutions(i.e.,designs),andtheselectionofonefromthisnumber.1.2SIZEOFSELECTIONLetusstartwithaverysimpledesignproblem.AsoneoftheparentsofanuclearfamilyyoudecidetakeyourspouseandyourtwoandahalfchildrentoScarboroughfortheday.Yourdesignproblemistoestablishthebestwayofmakingthejourney.Youestablishthealternativesasbeing:BritishRail,NationalBusorprivatecar.Inordertomakeyourchoiceyouneedsomethingelse.Youcannotpossiblydecidewhichisthebestunlessthereissomepropertypossessedbythethreealternativeswhichisimportanttoyouandwhichyouwishtoseemaximizedorminimized.Hence,ifyouwishtominimizethecostoftheouting,say,thedecisionissoonmade,givensomeunderstandingofthefarestructuresofBritishRailandNational,andarealisticappraisalofthefuelconsumptionofyourcar.Suchaproperty,inthiscasethedirectcostofthejourney,isknownasthedesigncriterionordesignobjective.Similarly,youmighttakejourneytimeasthedesigncriterionandonceagainthestudyoftimetablesandknowledgeofyourcar’scapabilitieswouldenableareadychoicetobemade.Inpassing,weshouldnotethatifbothcostsandjourneytimeareimportantthenthechoicemightbemoredifficult.Butthelatterpointisforfuturedevelopment.Forthemomentwemustconcentrateonsizeofselection.1.2.1CombinatorialexplosionIntheforegoingexamplethedesignproblemwastrivial,fortheselectionhadtobemadefromthreealternatives,eachoneofwhichwaseasilyevaluated.Butnowrecallthatsometimeinthepastweaskedyoutodeterminethenumberofpossibledesignsthatexitedofyouwerefacedwiththeproblemofaddingthree
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