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外文翻译--ERP系统——进展.doc外文翻译--ERP系统——进展.doc

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编号:201311172034357927    类型:共享资源    大小:80.00KB    格式:DOC    上传时间:2013-11-17
  
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中华人民共和国教育部东北林业大学外文文献论文题目:银行学生助学贷款管理系统学生:指导教师:讲师学院:信息与计算机工程学院专业:信息管理与信息系统2001级3班2005年6月1Inthepastdecadethebusinessenvironmenthaschangeddramatically.Theworldhasbecomeasmallandverydynamicmarketplace.Organizationstodayconfrontnewmarkets,newcompetitionandincreasingcustomerexpectations.Thishasputatremendousdemandonmanufacturersto;1)Lowertotalcostsinthecompletesupplychain2)Shortenthroughputtimes3)Reducestocktoaminimum4)Enlargeproductassortment5)Improveproductquality6)Providemorereliabledeliverydatesandhigherservicetothecustomer7)Efficientlycoordinateglobaldemand,supplyandproduction.Thustoday'sorganizationhavetoconstantlyre-engineertheirbusinesspracticesandprocedurestobemoreandmoreresponsivetocustomersandcompetition.Inthe1990'sinformationtechnologyandbusinessprocessre-engineering,usedinconjunctionwitheachother,haveemergedasimportanttoolswhichgiveorganizationstheleadingedge.ERPSystemsEvolutionThefocusofmanufacturingsystemsinthe1960'swasoninventorycontrol.Mostofthesoftwarepackagesthen(usuallycustomized)weredesignedtohandleinventorybasedontraditionalinventoryconcepts.Inthe1970'sthefocusshiftedtoMRP(MaterialRequirementPlanning)systemswhichtranslatedtheMasterSchedulebuiltfortheenditemsintotime-phasednetrequirementsforthesub-assemblies,componentsandrawmaterialsplanningandprocurement,Inthe1980'stheconceptofMRP-II(ManufacturingResourcesPlanning)evolvedwhichwasanextensionofMRPtoshopflooranddistributionmanagementactivities.Intheearly1990's,MRP-IIwasfurtherextendedtocoverareaslikeEngineering,Finance,HumanResources,ProjectsManagementetci.e.thecompletegamutofactivitieswithinanybusinessenterprise.Hence,thetermERP(EnterpriseResourcePlanning)wascoined.Inadditiontosystemrequirements,ERPaddressestechnologyaspectslikeclient/serverdistributedarchitecture,RDBMS,objectorientedprogrammingetc.ERPSystems-BandwidthERPsolutionsaddressbroadareaswithinanybusinesslikeManufacturing,Distribution,Finance,ProjectManagement,ServiceandMaintenance,Transportationetc.Aseamlessintegrationisessentialtoprovidevisibilityandconsistencyacrosstheenterprise.AnERPsystemshouldbesufficientlyversatiletosupportdifferentmanufacturingenvironmentslikemake-to-stock,assemble-to-orderandengineer-to-order.Thecustomerorderdecouplingpoint(CODP)shouldbeflexibleenoughtoallowtheco-existenceofthesemanufacturingenvironmentswithinthesamesystem.Itisalsoverylikelythatthesameproductmaymigratefromonemanufacturingenvironmenttoanotherduringitsproducelifecycle.ThesystemshouldbecompleteenoughtosupportbothDiscreteaswellasProcessmanufacturingscenario's.Theefficiencyofanenterprisedependsonthequickflowofinformationacrossthecompletesupplychaini.e.fromthecustomertomanufacturerstosupplier.ThisplacesdemandsontheERPsystemtohaverichfunctionalityacrossallareaslikesales,accountsreceivable,engineering,planning,inventorymanagement,production,purchase,accountspayable,qualitymanagement,distributionplanningandexternaltransportation.EDI(ElectronicDataInterchange)isanimportanttoolinspeedingupcommunicationswithtradingpartners.Moreandmorecompaniesarebecomingglobalandfocusingondown-sizinganddecentralizingtheirbusiness.ABBandNorthernTelecomareexamplesofcompanieswhichhavebusinessspreadaroundtheglobe.Forthesecompaniestomanagetheirbusinessefficiently,ERPsystemsneedtohaveextensivemulti-sitemanagementcapabilities.Thecompletefinancialaccountingandmanagementaccountingrequirementsoftheorganizationshouldbeaddressed.Itisnecessarytohavecentralizedorde-centralizedaccountingfunctionswithcompleteflexibilitytoconsolidatecorporateinformation.After-salesserviceshouldbestreamlinedandmanagedefficiently.AstrongEIS(EnterpriseInformationSystem)withextensivedrilldowncapabilitiesshouldbeavailableforthetopmanagementtogetabirdseyeviewofthehealthoftheirorganizationandhelpthemtoanalyzeperformanceinkeyareas.EvaluationCriteriaSomeimportantpointstobekeptinmindwhileevaluatinganERPsoftwareinclude:1)FunctionalfitwiththeCompany'sbusinessprocesses2)DegreeofintegrationbetweenthevariouscomponentsoftheERPsystem3)Flexibilityandscalability4)Complexity;userfriendliness5)Quickimplementation;shortenedROIperiod6)Abilitytosupportmulti-siteplanningandcontrol7)Technology;client/servercapabilities,databaseindependence,security8)Availabilityofregularupgrades9)Amountofcustomizationrequired10)LocalsupportinfrastructureII)Availabilityofreferencesites12)Totalcosts,includingcostoflicense,training,implementation,maintenance,customizationandhardwarerequirements.ERPSystems-ImplementationThesuccessofanERPsolutiondependsonhowquickthebenefitscanbereapedfromit.ThisnecessitatesrapidimplementationswhichleadtoshortenedROIperiods.TraditionalapproachtoimplementationhasbeentocarryoutaBusinessProcessRe-engineeringexerciseanddefinea"TOBE"modelbeforetheERPsystemimplementation.ThisledtomismatchesbetweentheproposedmodelandtheERPfunctionality,theconsequenceofwhichwascustomizations,extendedimplementationtimeframes,highercostsandlossofuserconfidence.ERPSystems-TheFutureTheInternetrepresentsthenextmajortechnologyenablerwhichallowsrapidsupplychainmanagementbetweenmultipleoperationsandtradingpartners.MostERPsystemsareenhancingtheirproductstobecome"InternetEnabled"sothatcustomersworldwidecanhavedirecttothesupplier'sERPsystem.ERPsystemsarebuildingintheWorkflowManagementfunctionallywhichprovidesamechanismtomanageandcontroltheflowofworkbymonitoringlogisticaspectslikeworkload,capacity,throughouttimes,workqueuelengthsandprocessingtimes.
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