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1INTERNETTHEINTERNETALSOKNOWNASTHENETISTHEWORLDSLARGESTCOMPUTERNETWORK“ANDWHATISANETWORK”YOUMAYASKACOMPUTERNETWORKISBASICALLYABUNCHOFCOMPUTERSBOOKEDTOGETHERSOMEHOWINCONCEPT,ITSSORTOFLIKEARADIOORTVNETWORKTHATCONNECTABUNCHOFRADIOORTVSTATIONSSOMECOMPUTERNETWORKSCONSISTOFACENTRALCOMPUTERANDABUNCHOFREMOTESTATIONSTHATREPORTTOITACENTRALAIRLINERESERVATIONCOMPUTER,FOREXAMPLE,WITHTHOUSANDSOFTERMINALSATAIRPORTSANDTRAVELAGENCIESOTHER,INCLUDINGTHEINTERNET,PERMITANYCOMPUTERONTHENETWORKTOCOMMUNICATEWITHANYOTHERTHEINTERNETISPROBABLYTHEMOSTOPENNETWORKINTHEWORLDTHOUSANDSOFCOMPUTERSPROVIDEFACILITIESTHATAREAVAILABLETOANYONEWHOHASNETACCESSTHISSITUATIONISUNUSUALMOSTNETWORKSAREVERYRESTRICTIVEINWHATTHEYALLOWUSERSTODOANDREQUIREAPECIFICARRANGEMENTSANDPASSWORDSFOREACHSERVICEALTHOUGHAFEWPAYSERVICESEXIST,THEVASTMAJORITYOFINTERNETSERVICESAREFREEFORTHETAKING,ONCEYOUCONNECTEDIFYOUDONTALREADYHAVEACCESSTOTHEINTERNETTHROUGHYOURCOMPANY,YOURSCHOOL,YOULLPROBABLYHAVETOPAYFORACCESSTOTHEINTERNETBYUSINGINTERNETACCESSPROVIDER“HOWDOIGETTOTHEINTERNET”WELLDEPENDINGONYOURLIFESTYLE,INCLUDINGYOURJOBORYOURSCHOOL,CHECKINGOUTTHEINTERNETCANBETRIVIALLYEASYORMODERATELYDIFFICULT1MODEMAMODEMISALITTLEDEVICETHATENABLESDATAFROMONECOMPUTERTOTRAVELTOANOTHERCOMPUTERBYUSINGORDINARYTELEPHONELINESTHISCUTELITTLEBOXGOESBETWEENYOURANDYOURPHONELINEANDBETWEENTHEPHONELINEANDTHECOMPUTERONTHEOTHERENDMODEMAREBUILTINTOSOMECOMPUTER,SOIFYOUVENOTSUREWHETHERONEISINYOURCOMPUTER,ASKIFYOUNEEDTOBUYAMODEM,FINDTHECHEAPESTFAXMODEMTHATRUNSAT14400HPSYOUCANPAYMOREFORTHINGSTHATGOFASTER,BUTTHATSPEEDISNTREALLYPASSEDONTOYOUBYUSINGYOURORDINARYPHONELINEJUSTNOWMAKESURETHATYOURMODEMCOMESWITHSOMECOMMUNICATIONSSOFTWARETHATSAPPROPRIATEFORTHECOMPUTERANDVERSIONOFOPERATINGSYSTEMYOUREUSINGTHEINTERNETISOUTTHEREWITHTONSOFEXCITINGTHINGSTODO,BUTYOUHAVETOITTHROUGHYOURSCHOOLORWORKTHEFOLKSWHOPROVIDEACCESSTOTHEINTERNETGENERALLYFORAFEEARECALLEDINTERNETSERVICEPROVIDERS2ONLINEONLINESERVICEARESERVICESPROVIDEDTOYOUBYACOMPUTERORCOMPUTERSINTERACTIVELYTHEYINCLUDEBUTARENOTLIMITEDTOCOMPUTERIZEDBANKING,SHOPPING,DATING,ENTERTAINMENT,ANDSTUDYTHEYMAYORMAYNOTHAVEANYTHINGTODOWITHTHE2INTERNET,SUCHASCOMPUSERVE,EXISTEDINDEPENDENTLYOFTHEINTERNETTHEYALLOWEDUSERSTOEXCHANGEELECTRONICMAILAMONGOTHERCOMPUSERVEUSERSBUTFAILEDTOREACHOUTTOTOUCHANYONEELSENOWMOSTOFTHESESERVICESDOPROVIDEEMAILACCESSBEYONDTHEIRINSULATEDCLIENTHASTHISISAFARCRY,HOWEVER,FROMREALINTERNETACCESSANDCAPABILITY3BULLETINBOARDSBBSELECTRONICBULLETINBOARDSYSTEMSABBREVIATEDASBBSPROVIDEONLINESERVICESGENERALLYONASMALLERSCALEBULLETINBOARDSYSTEMISOFTENLOCAL,OFTENVERYCHEAP,ANDSOMETIMESEVENFREETOCALLERSTHEYMIGHTPROVIDEEMAIL,CHEATINGONLINECONVERSATIONSWITHOTHERUSERS,FORUMSABOUTSPECIALINTERESTS,GAMES,ADS,ANDLOTS,LOTSMOREGATEWAYTHEFIRSTQUESTIONISWHETHERYOURPCHASANATIVECONNECTIONTOTHEINTERNETORWHETHERITGOESTHROUGHSOMEOTHERTYPEOFNETWORKIFITHASANATIVECONNECTION,YOURPCRUNSNETWORKSOFTWARETHATHANDLESTHETCP/IPNETWORKPROTOCOLSTHEINTERNETUSESTHEALTERNATIVEISTHATYOURPCISRUNNINGANOTHERKINDOFNETWORKSOFTWAREMOSTOFTENNOVELL’SNETWAREANDISATTACHEDTOAGATEWAYSYSTEMTHATSPEAKSNETWAREONONESIDEANDTCP/IPONTHEOTHERIT’SALSOPOSSIBLETOLOADUPBOTHTCP/IPANDSOMEOTHERKINDOFNETWORKSOFTWAREONTHESAMEPCANDRUNTHEMONTHESAMEPHYSICALNETWORKCABLESATTHESAMETIMEIFYOUALREADYHAVEALARGENETWORK,YOURSYSTEMMANAGERCANLOADUPASINGLENETWAREGATEWAYTHATALLTHEOTHERPCSONTHENETWORKCANSEEIFEACHPCISTORUNTCP/IPITSELF,YOURNETWORKMANAGERHASTOLOADTCP/IPONEACHPC,WHICHISAGREATDEALMOREWORKTCP/IPWORKSBETTERINHETEROGENEOUSNETWORKSTHATIS,NETWORKSMADEUPOFLOTSOFDIFFERENTKINDSOFCOMPUTERSNOVELLNETWAREISGREATONNETWORKSOFPCSANDLESSGREATONOTHERKINDSOFCOMPUTERSBECAUSENETWAREATTHISPOINTWORKSONFARFEWERKINDSOFCOMPUTERSTHANTCP/IPDOESETHERNETTOKENASSUMETHATYOURPCRUNSTCP/IPBYITSELFANDNOTBYWAYOFANTHERKINDOFNETWORKHOWISITCONNECTTOTHERESTOFTHENETTHETHREEMAJORCHOICESAREETHERNET,TOKENRING,ANDSERIALLINESTHEMOSTCOMMONWAYTOHOOKUPPCSTONETWORKSISWITHETHERNET,AKINDOFNETWORKTHATISFASTANDCHEAPBUTLIMITEDTOATOTALDISTANCEOFLESSTHANAMILEFORLARGERNETWORK,APERSONCANHOOKTOGETHERSEVERALETHERNETNETWORKBYUSINGDEVICESCALLEDBRIDGESANDROUTERSTOKENRINGAFEWYEARSBACK,IBMDECIDEDTHATBECAUSEEVERYOTHERCOMPUTERMANUFACTURERINTHEWORLDWASUSINGETHERNET,ITWOULDAVOIDTHEHEARTACHEOFEXCESSIVECOMPATIBILITYBYCOMINGUPWITHITSOWNNETWORKCALLEDTOKENRINGFURIOUSTECHNICALDEBATESRAGEDONABOUTTHERELATIVEMERITSOFETHERNETANDTOKENRING,WHICHWECANSUMMARIZEBYSAYINGTHATTHEDIFFERENCESARE95PERCENTPOLITICALTOKEN3RINGUSESACLEVERRECTANGULARCONNECTORTHATHASTHEADVANTAGEOVERMANYVERSIONOFETHERNETINTHATITCOMESUNPLUGGEDONLYWHENYOUWANTITTOTHEINTERNETHASMORETHANAMILLIONCOMPUTERSATTACHEDTOITHOWDOYOUFINDTHEONEYOUWANTEACHMACHINEONTHENETISIDENTIFIEDBYANUMBERANDANAMEEACHMACHINEONTHENETCALLAHOSTHASANUMBERASSIGNEDTOIDENTIFYITTOOTHERHOSTS,SORTOFLIKEAPHONENUMBERTHENUMBERSAREINFOURPARTS,SUCHAS123456789MOSTHOSTSALSOHAVENAMES,WHICHAREMUCHEASIERTOREMEMBERTHANNUMBERSARETHENAMESHAVEMULTIPLEPARTSSEPARATEDBYDOTSCHICOIECCCOM,FOREXAMPLESOMEHOSTSHAVEMORETHANONENAME,BUTITDOESN’TMATTERWHICHOFTHEMYOUUSEEACHNETWORKINTHEINTERNETHASRULESABOUTWHATKINDSOFNETWORKTRAFFICEMAIL,TE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