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2022年中石油职称英语考试试题试卷类型:8I.VocabularyDirections:Thereare20incompletesentencesinthispart.ForeachsentencetherearefourchoicesmarkedA,B,CandD.ChoosetheONEanswerthatbestcompletesthesentenceandmarkyouranswerontheAnswerSheet.1.Itispossibletopredicthowmuchenergyandwaterabuildingwillconsume,howmuch_______willbeneeded.A.matterB.thingsC.materialD.substance2.Theyfoundthatthepositivethinkerssold37percentmoreinsurancethandidthe_______thinkers.A.negativeB.positiveC.activeD.passive3.Inlabsaroundtheworld,badbugsareundergoingtheultimaterehabilitation,being_______fromlife-threateningvirusesandbacteriaintolifesavingtherapeuticagents.A.translatedB.transportedC.transformedD.transmitted4.Thefreshairissometimeshumidfromthe_______rainfallofthisarea.A.numerousB.abundantC.plentyD.substantive5.Weknowthatmanyanimals_______thedeepseasatpressuresof15,000poundsperquareinch.A.liveonB.liveinC.livethroughD.liveupto6.SpeakersandwritersoftheGermaniclanguages_______foragreatdealoftheworld'soutputineverythingfromeconomicstoliteraturetomilitarytoscienceandtechnology.A.accountB.allowC.applyD.arrange7._______ofthegreatstateofIllinois,letmeexpressmydeepestgratitudefortheprivilegeofaddressingthisconvention.A.OnaccountB.InhonorC.InplaceD.Onbehalf8.Thecompaniesthatarefindingwaystohangontotheirolderworkers_______fromanintangiblecommodity:wisdom.A.obtainB.earnC.developD.benefit9.Iracedto_______Jill.A.keeponB.keepupwithC.comeupwithD.comeupto10.Managersneedtomonitorinflationtrendssotheycanmakegood_______.A.decisiveB.decisionsC.decideD.decided11.Fluencycanbe_______definedas"beingabletocommunicateideaswithouthavingtostopandthinktoomuchaboutwhatoneissaying."A.simpleB.simplyC.similarD.simplify12.Thenumberofvehicleshasbeensteadilyincreasing._______,morethan100citiesintheUnitedStatesstillhavelevelsofcarbonmonoxidethatexceedlegallyestablishedlimits.A.ContinuouslyB.ConsequentlyC.ConstantlyD.Consistently13.A(An)_______isbetterthanthetextandmaymakethepointclear.A.interpretationB.representationC.illustrationD.draw14.Someoftheworld'sbestmountain_______isavailablewithinthe500-kilometerlongchainoftheSouthernAlps.A.sceneB.sceneryC.scarceD.scare15.Afterathroughresearch,thepolice__mostofthemissingjewels.A.retreatedB.refreshedC.recoveredD.reminded16.Agold-ratedbuildingisestimatedtohavereduceditsenvironmentalimpactby50%comparedwitha(an)__conventionalbuilding.A.equivalentB.alikeC.uniformD.likely17.Whenpessimists__intheirfirstattempt,theyusuallysay,"Ican'tdothis."A.feelB.failC.defeatD.lost18.Sixyears__beforeshegotanothernotefromTeddy.A.wentintoB.wentaroundC.wentbyD.wenton19.Thecompanyownsalargenumberof_______stores.A.exportB.bargainC.retailD.trade20.Thecostofself-educationhasfallenwiththemultitudeofsourcesofknowledgeandinformation_______onCD-ROMsandtheInternet.A.preferableB.readyC.availableD.considerableII.GrammaticalStructureDirections:Thereare20incompletesentencesinthispart.ForeachsentencetherearefourchoicesmarkedA,B,CandD.ChoosetheONEanswerthatbestcompletesthesentenceandmarkyouranswerontheAnswerSheet.21.Putthingsback______youfoundthem.A.whereB.thatC.whichD.since22.--Areyougoingtothefootballgame?--No,theticketsare_______forme.A.terribleexpensiveB.somuchexpensiveC.fartooexpensiveD.highlyexpensive23.Theresidents,__hadbeendamagedbytheflood,weregivenhelpbytheRedCross.A.allofwhosehomesB.alloftheirhomesC.alltheirhomesD.allthathomes24.Insomecountries____iscalled"equality"doesnotreallymeanequalrightsforallpeople.A.whichB.whatC.thatD.one25.Gorillasarequietanimals,______theyareabletomakeabouttwentydifferentsounds.A.howB.inspiteofC.eventhoughD.becauseof26._______thesizeandnatureofabusiness,itsmaingoalistoearnaprofit.A.WhateverB.WhicheverC.WhereasD.Because27.HenryandTom__tothepartiesattheTradeUnioneverySaturday.A.usedtogoB.wereusedtogoC.areusedtogoD.usetogo28.Thecrewmanswitchedonportableflashlightsastheengineer__thescene.A.hassurveyedB.surveysC.wassurveyingD.issurveying29._______WAPtechnology,peoplecandotheirworkanywhereanytime.A.UseB.UsingC.BeingusedD.Used30.Thenews_______heardeverywhere.A.hadB.havebeenC.wasD.aregoingtobe31.You__yourselfaboutmoney.A.neednotworryB.haveworryC.arenotbeingworriedD.needn'tbeworried32.Thecoursenormallyattracts20studentsperyear,__uptohalfwillbefromoverseas.A.inwhichB.forwhomC.withwhichD.ofwhom33._______hewasaregularcustomer,thebossallowed10%discountoffthepricesofthegoods.A.GivingB.GivingthatC.GiventhatD.Togivethat34.Itseemsoil_______fromthispipeforsometime.We'llhavetotakemachineaparttoputitright.A.hadleakedB.isleakingC.leakedD.hasbeenleaking35.__nothingmoretodiscuss,theCEOgottohisfeet,saidgoodbyeandleftthemeetingroom.A.TherewasB.BeingC.TherebeingD.Astherebeing36.GreatasNewtonwas,manyofhisideas__todayandarebeingmodifiedbytheworkofscientistsofourtime.A.aretochallengeB.havebeenchallengedC.maybechallengedD.arechallenging37.Sheapologizedfor__themeeting.A.herbeingablenottoattendB.herbeingnotabletoattendC.notherbeingabletoattendD.hernotbeingabletoattend38.Iwishtohaveawordwithyou,_______?A.mustIB.wouldn'tIC.mayID.shouldn'tI39.__rightnow,shewouldgetthereonSunday.A.WouldsheleaveB.IfsheleaveC.WereshetoleaveD.Ifshehadleft40.IwishI__longerthismorning,butIhadtogetupandcometoclass.A.couldhavesleptB.sleptC.mighthavesleptD.havesleptIII.ReadingComprehensionSectionADirections:Thereare5passagesinthissection.Eachpassageisfollowedby4questionsorunfinishedstatements.ForeachofthemtherearefourchoicesmarkedA,B,CandD.YoushoulddecideonthebestchoiceandmarkyouranswerontheAnswerSheet.Questions41to44arebasedonthefollowingpassage:Bydirectobservationsandmanyexperiments,biologistshavediscoveredthatpracticallyallanimalshavesomesenseofhearingorvibration.Earthwormsfeelvibrationsinthesoil,fishcanbetrainedtorespondtocertaintones,malemosquitoesareattractedbythesoundofthefemale,andfrogswillrespondtoataperecordingoftheirownvoices.Theinnereariscomposedofdelicatemembraneswhichbeardensepatchesofspecializedcellscalledmaculae.Eachofthesecollectionsofcellscancarryamessagetothebrain.Whatmessageiscarriedbyamaculadependsuponhowitisaffected.Themessagewhichiscarriedisnot,however,alwaysconnectedwiththehearingsense.Forinstance,acertainkindoftadpolecantellthedepthofthewateritisswimminginbythepitchofatonewhichisproducedbyitsownlungs.Inthehumanandallothermammals,themaculahasdevelopedintoanorganwhichcaneasilybeseen.Thisorganiscalledthecochlea.Thisspiralshapedorgancontainsthemaculaitselfanditiscalled"organofCorti"afteritsdiscoverer.Ifyouhaveeverseenasnailshell,youknowhowacochlealooks.Whensoundwavesenterthecochlea,whichisreallyatubecoiledaround,theysetamembraneintoabackandforthmotionandcauseanewwave.Thisissomethinglikethewayinwhichhighandlowsoundsareproducedbyafluteorwhistle.Thehighsoundsareproducedwhentheairispreventedbytheholesfromgoingthrough,whilethelowsoundsareproducedbyallowingmoreoftheairtopass.Allthisiswhatproducesthedifferencesbetweenhighandlowsounds.Theloudnessofasoundisevidentlyproducedbyhowmuchthemembraneiscausetomove.Whetherornothearingisreallyproducedinallanimalsbytheeffectofpressureisnotdefinitelyknownbyscientistsasyet.Wedoknow,however,thatnaturehassetupsomeverydelicatehearingmechanismsforitscreatures.Scientistsmustexploremuchfurtherformoreknowledgeabouthowanimalsusetheirears.41.AccordingtothearticlepracticallyallanimalshavesomesenseofA.directionB.hearingC.vibrationD.bothBandC42.ThecochleaisfoundA.infishB.onlyinhumansC.inallanimalsD.inallmammals43.ScientistsknowA.thatallanimalshaveacochleaB.verylittleabouthearinginanimalsC.thatmosquitoescannothearsoundsD.thathearingisproducedbyairpressureinmammals.44.Thearticleismostlyabout__A.howsoundisproducedB.learningbyobservingC.theworkingsoftheinnerearD.outerearformationinvariousanimalsQuestions45to48arebasedonthefollowingpassage:DearMs.Answers,I'vebeenofferedajobpromotionthatwouldrequiremetorelocateabroadtoParisfromChicago.ThesalaryformynewpositionwouldbemuchhigherthanwhatI'mgettingnow,andI'vealwayswantedtoworkintheFrenchbranchofourcompany,butI'mworriedthatlivinginPariscouldbemoreexpensivethanwhereIlivenow.Ifthisisthecase,perhapstheincreaseinsalarywon'tmakeabigdifference.CanyoutellmeanythingaboutthecostoflivinginParis?Thankyou,RaphaelDanielsDearMr.Daniels,Congratulationsonreceivingsuchawonderfulemploymentopportunity.Livingandworkinginaforeigncountryisnotsomethingthatmanypeoplegettodo.Althoughitcanbeaveryrewardingexperience,itcanalsobeveryexpensiveifyourfinancesarenotmanagedproperly.Inthesamewaythatyouwillneedtoadjusttoa'differentlanguage,customs,andcukure,youwillalsoneedtodevelopnewdailyroutinesandspendinghabits.Thisaspectoflivingabroadcanbedifficultforsomepeoplewhomaybetemptedtolivetheirdailylivesasiftheyareonvacation:eatinginfancyrestaurants,buyingexpensivesouvenirs,andgoingsightseeing.Itisnaturaltolivelikeyouareonvacationwhenmovingtoaforeignenvironment,butitisimportantnottogetcarriedaway.Establishingaweeklyandmonthlybudgetforyourselfisthebestwaytotakecontrolofyournewfinancialsituation.Itmaybehelpfultokeeptrackofyourspendinghabitsforthefirstweeksafteryourarrivalandestablishabudgetbasedonthat.Aslongasyoumanageyourfinancesasyouwouldifyouwereathome,livinginParisshouldnotbeanymoreexpensivethanlivingwhereyouarenow.Inmyresearch,theonlytwothingsIfoundthatweresignificantlymoreexpensiveinParisthaninChicagoweretaxifaresandhigh-speedtrains.Fortunately,Parishasanexcellent,ratherinexpensivesubwaysystem.ToviewalistofcommonFrenchitemsandtheirequivalentpricesinAmericandollars,visitwww./varis.Sincerely,Ms.AnswersAskA45.AccordingtoMr.Daniel’se-mail,whatisheconcernedabout?A.LivingexpensesB.HissalaryC.CommutingtoworkD.Hisvacationdays46.WhatdoesMs.AnswerssuggestMr.Danielsdo?A.EstablishabudgetB.SpeakwithhisbossC.LookattrainfaresD.Consultaguidebook47.InMs.Answers'e-mail,theword"track"inparagraph3,line4,isclosestinmeaningtoA.footstepB.coverC.recordD.roadway48.WhatdoesMs.Answerssayaboutthesubway?A.Itisnew.B.Itisdirty.C.Itisinefficient.D.Itisinexpensive.Questions49to52arebasedonthefollowingpassage:OstrumGE,thesecondlargestpowercompanyintheNordiccountries,officiallyopeneditsfirstHydrogenEnergyStation(HES),withtechnologyproductsprovidedbyGredlerEnergySystemsCorporation.ThenewstationwillsupplycleanhydrogenfueltothreefuelcellbusesaspartoftheprestigiousGreenEuropeAdvancedTransport(GREAT)program.Stockholm(斯德哥尔摩)isoneoffourGREATcitiesthatwillbeusingGredlerEnergyhydrogeninfrastructureproducts.Mr.PeterRussell,ChiefOperatingOfficerofGredlerEnergy,wasinStockholmforthestationopeningandcommented,"TheopeningofthisstationrepresentsthefirststepintheintroductionofahydrogeninfrastructureintheCityofStockholm.OstrumandtheCityofStockholmhavetakenanessentialsteptowardscreatingapathwaytoenvironmentallysustainableurbantransportationsolutionsandwearedelightedtobepartofthisimportantmovement."TheStockholmHESiscomprisedoffourmodules:pressurizedwaterelectrolysis-basedhydrogengeneration,compression,high-pressurestorageandhydrogenfueldispenser.Thestationiscapableofproducingapproximately120kgperdayofhigh-purity,high-pressurehydrogenusingGredlerEnergy'sproprietarytechnology.Eachfuelcellbuscarriesapproximately40kgofhydrogenat350bar(5,000psi).GredlerEnergySystemsCorporationistheworldleadingdeveloperandsupplierofintegratedhydrogensolutions,allusingthecompany'sproprietaryhydrogengenerationwaterelectrolysistechnologyalongwithproductsfromcorporatepartners.49.Whowillbeinchargeofthenewhydrogenenergystation?A.OredlerEnergySystemsB.OstrumGEC.TheGREATProgramD.TheCityofStockholm50.Howmuchhydrogenwillthenewstationproduceeachday?A.40kgB.120kgC.350barD.5,000psi51.Theword"sustainable"inparagraph2,line5isclosestinmeaningtoA.livableB.deliverableC.maintainableD.combustible52.WhatistrueabouttheGREATprogram?A.Itoperatesinfourcountries.B.ItisoperatedbytheGredlerCorporation.C.Itpromotestheuseofnon-pollutingfuels.D.Itstudiestheeffectsofhydrogenontheatmosphere.Questions53to56arebasedonthefollowingpassage:Theriseofmultinationalcorporations,globalmarketing,newcommunicationtechnologies,andshrinkingculturaldifferenceshaveledtoanunparalleledincreaseinglobalpublicrelationsorPR.Surprisingly,sincemodemPRwaslargelyanAmericaninvention,theU.S.leadershipinpublicrelationsisbeingthreatenedbyPReffortsinothercountries.Twentyyearsago,forexample,theworld'stopfivepublicrelationsagencieswereAmerican-owned.In2003,onlyonewas.TheBritishinparticulararebecomingmoresophisticatedandcreative.ArecentsurveyfoundthatmorethanhalfofallBritishcompaniesincludePRaspartoftheircorporateplanningactivities,comparedtoaboutonethirdofU.S.companies.ItmaynotbelongbeforeLondonreplacesNewYorkasthecapitalofPR.WhyisAmericalaggingbehindintheglobalPRrace?First,Americansasawholetendtobefairlyprovincialandtakemoreofaninterestinlocalaffairs.Knowledgeofworldgeography,forexample,hasneverbeenstronginthiscountry.Secondly,AmericanslagbehindtheirEuropeanandAsiancounterpartsinknowingasecondlanguage.Lessthan5percentofBurson-Marshall'sU.S.employeesknowtwolanguages.OgilvyandMatherhasaboutthesamepercentage.Conversely,someEuropeanfirmshavehalfofmoreoftheiremployeesfluentinasecondlanguage.Finally,peopleinvolvedinPRabroadtendtokeepaclosereyeoninternationalaffairs.InthefinancialPRarea,forinstance,mostAmericansreadtheWallStreetJournal.Overseas,theircounterpartsreadtheJournalaswellastheFinancialTimesofLondonandTheEconomist,publicationsnotoftenreadinthiscountry.PerhapsthePRindustrymighttakealessonfromTedTurnerofCNN.Turnerrecentlyannouncedthattheword"foreign"wouldnolongerbeusedonCNNnewsbroadcast.AccordingtoTurner,globalcommunicationshavemadethenationsoftheworldsointerdependentthatthereisnolongeranysuchthingasforeign.53.Accordingtothepassage,U.S.leadershipinpublicrelationsisbeingthreatenedbecauseofA.anunparalleledincreaseinthenumberofpublicrelationscompaniesB.increasedeffortsofothercountriesinpublicrelationsC.shrinkingculturaldifferencesandnewcommunicationstechnologiesD.thedecreasingnumberofmultinationalcorporationsintheU.S.54.Theword"provincial"(Line2,Para.3)mostprobablymeans__A.limitedinoutlookB.likepeoplefromtheprovincesC.rigidinthinkingD.interestedinworldfinancialaffairs55.WelearnfromthethirdparagraphthatemployeesintheAmericanPRindustryA.speakatleastoneforeignlanguagefluentlyB.arenotassophisticatedastheirEuropeancounterpartsC.areignorantaboutworldgeographyD.enjoyreadingagreatvarietyofEnglishbusinesspublications56.WhatlessonmightthePRindustrytakefromTedTurnerofCNN?A.AmericanPRcompaniesshouldbemoreinternationally-minded.B.TheAmericanPRindustryshoulddevelopglobalcommunicationtechnologies.C.PeopleworkinginPRshouldbemorefluentinforeignlanguage.D.PeopleinvolvedinPRshouldavoidusingtheword"foreign"Questions57to60arebasedonthefollowingpassage:OnthenightofAugust17,1959,atabout20minutesbeforemidnight,thegroundinthevicinityofYellowstoneNationalParkbeganshakingviolently.Atthetimetherewasarumblingsound,somethinglikeahugetruckwouldmake.Boththeheavingofthegroundandthenoisewereveryfrighteningbutlastednotquite45seconds.ThisearthquakenearYellowstoneParkwasjustoneofnearlyamillionthathappeneveryyearallovertheworld.Andasbadasthisquakewas,manyhavebeenworse.EarthquakeexpertssaythattheYellowstonequakeof1959wasaboutasbadastheonewhichhitSanFranciscoin1906.ButtheSanFranciscoquakecausedmoredamagebecauseitstruckinaplacewherethereweresomanypeopleliving.InSanFrancisco700personslosttheirlives.AnearthquakeinJapanin1923took160,000lives.InChinain1920anearthquaketook200,000lives.Itiseasytounderstandwhyearthquakesaresofeared.Whatcausestheseterribleshakesoftheverygroundonwhichwelive?Toanswerthatquestionwemustfirstunderstandsomethingsabouttheearthitself.Fortymilesdeepintheearthistheedgeoftheoutercrustoftheearth,andthereitissohotthatinsteadofhardrockthereismaterialmuchlikethehotlavathatavolcanoerupts.Itistheearth's40-miledeepcrustwithwhichweareconcernedwhenweseekthecauseofearthquakes.Theearth'scrustisformedofmanydifferentlayersofrocks.Thelayersofrocksarenotlaidevenly,asabricklayerwouldbuildawall.Instead,theearth'scrustismadeofrocklayersthatareoftenunevenandnotperfectlybalanced.Becauseofthegreatweightpressingdownonthem,theselayerstendtofolddownwardatweakspots,andthisfinallycausesanactualbreakinthecrust.Whenthisbreakoccurs,orwhenthesidesofanoldbreakslip,theearthquakes,orshakes,whilethecrustissettlingintoanewposition.Sometimethesefaultsareverysmall,andwethenfeelonlyalittletremor.Thetremormayevenbesolightthatonlythemostdelicatemachinewillrecordit.Mostearthquakesareofthisweakkind.Sometimesabreakintheearth'scrustcomesabout,whichstartssuchalandslideasthatwhichoccurredinMadisonCanyon.Itthentakesnotone,butmanyshakesfortheearthtohealthefaultandsettle.Thatiswhymanyafter-shocksfollowamajorearthquake.Sometimesthesegoonforseveralyears.57.TheYellowstoneearthquakewasA.oneofthemoresevereB.notsevereC.theworstinU.S.historyD.averysmallone58.TheSanFranciscoquakewasworsethantheoneinYellowstonebecauseA.itlastedlongerB.itstruckwheresomanypeoplelivedC.thereweremountainsatYellowstoneD.therewasariveratYellowstone59.Theearth'scrustismadeofA.sandB.mountainsC.manylayerofrockD.lava60.SometimesaftershocksfollowanearthquakeforaslongasA.daysB.monthsC.yearsD.centuriesSectionBDirections:Thereare10blanksinthefollowingpassage.ForeachblanktherearefourchoicesmarkedA,B,CandD.YoushouldchoosetheONEthatbestfitsintothepassage.ThenmarkyouranswerontheAnswerSheet.Landpollutioninvolvesmanykindsofwastes.Formanyyears,allwastesweredumped61sanitary(卫生的)landfills.Sanitarylandfillsarelargepitswheregarbageisburiedunderlayersofdirt.Whenhazardouswastesareputintheselandfills,toxic(有毒的)substancescanseepintothegroundwaterandenterthefoodchain.Hazardouswastesarethosekindsofwastesthatare62ordangeroustotheenvironment.Theycanbepoisonous,corrosive(腐蚀性的),flammable,explosive,orradioactive(放射性的).Theycanpollutetheairor63firesorexplosions.Thesewastescanalsocause64problemsforhumansandanimals.Forthesereasons,itisimportanttodispose65hazardouswastesinsecuredlandfillswheretheycannotleak.Asecuredlandfillislocatedonclayground,andthepitsarelinedwithplasticandnylonsheetsto66thehazardouswastesinthepit.Onekindofhazardouswastes,radioactivewaste,involvesaspecialdisposalproblem.Radioactivewasteiscreatedbyindustriesandnuclearpowerplants67useradioactivematerials.Radioactivematerials68offenergyastheiratomschange.Thisenergyisinvisible,butverypowerful.Itcanharm69tissuesinplantsandanimals.Radioactivewastecanremainhazardousforover100years.Theymustbestoredincontainersthatcanholdthemwithoutleakageforatleast70amountoftime.61.A.byB.withC.ofD.into62.A.destructiveB.smellyC.poisonousD.healthy63.A.makeB.leadC.causeD.take64.A.lungB.livingC.healthD.water65.A.ofB.byC.toD.with66.A.helpB.remainC.keepD.guard67.A.thoseB.whoC.thatD.what68.A.comeB.giveC.takeD.put69.A.livingB.liveC.livelyD.alive70.A.anB.oneC.thatD.theseIV.TranslationDirections:Therearesomepassagesinthispartofthetest.YouaretotranslatethepassagesintoChineseonyourAnswerSheet.A级71.Afast-growingbodyofresearchisprovingthatoptimismcanhelpyoutobehealthierandmoresuccessful.Pessimismleads,bycontrast,tosicknessandfailure,andislinkedtodepressionandpainfulshyness."Ifwecouldteachpeopletothinkmorepositively,"sayspsychologistMichaelofYaleUniversity,"itwouldbelikeinoculating(接种疫苗)themagainstthesementalills.""Yourabilitiescount,"explainspsychologistSmithofHarvardUniversity,"butthebeliefthatyoucansucceedaffectswhetherornotyouwill."Inpart,that'sbecauseoptimistsandpessimistsdealwiththesamechallengesanddisappointmentsinverydifferentways.Takeforexampleyourjob.Inamajorstudy,Smithandhiscolleaguessurveyedsalesrepresentativesa

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