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外文翻译--太阳能.doc

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外文翻译--太阳能.doc

SOLARPOWERSOLARENERGYFORSEVERALBILLIONSOFYEARS,SOLARENERGYISTHESOLARRADIATIONENERGYTOTHEEARTHSOLARENERGYCANBEDIRECTLYORINDIRECTLYCONVERTEDTOOTHERFORMSOFENERGY,SUCHASHEATANDELECTRICITYTHEMAINDISADVANTAGEQUESTION,ORPROBLEMTOBEOVERCOMEOFSOLARENERGYARE1INTERMITTENTMODEGETTHEEARTHSSURFACE,2ALARGEAREATOGATHERINALARGECONTAINERWITHECONOMICDEVELOPMENT,SOCIALPROGRESS,PEOPLESENERGYTOEVERINCREASINGDEMANDS,FINDNEWSOURCESOFENERGYHASBECOMEANURGENTISSUEFACINGHUMANITYEXISTINGENERGYMAJORHASTHREEKINDS,NAMELY,THERMALPOWER,HYDROPOWERANDNUCLEARPOWERWATERANDELECTRICITYTOALARGENUMBEROFSUBMERGEDLAND,THATCOULDLEADTOECOLOGICALDESTRUCTIONANDTHECOLLAPSEOFLARGERESERVOIRSONCETHECOLLAPSE,THECONSEQUENCESWOULDBEDISASTROUSINADDITION,ACOUNTRYSWATERRESOURCESISALSOLIMITED,BUTALSOBYTHEIMPACTOFTHESEASONNUCLEARPOWERUNDERNORMALCIRCUMSTANCESISCLEAN,BUTUNLIKELYEVENTOFANUCLEARLEAK,THECONSEQUENCESARETERRIBLESAMETHEFORMERSOVIETUNION,THECHERNOBYLNUCLEARPOWERPLANTACCIDENT,HASNINEMILLIONPEOPLEHAVEBEENVARYINGDEGREESOFDAMAGE,ANDTHISIMPACTHASNOTBEENTERMINATEDTHESEARECOMPELLINGPEOPLETOGOLOOKINGFORNEWENERGYNEWENERGYTOSIMULTANEOUSLYSATISFYTWOCONDITIONSFIRST,NOTDEPLETIONOFRICH;IIARESAFE,CLEAN,NOTATHREATTOHUMANSANDDAMAGETHEENVIRONMENTCURRENTLYFOUNDINTHEMAIN,TWONEWENERGY,SOLARENERGYFIRST,ANDSECOND,THEFUELCELLINADDITION,WINDPOWERCOULDALSOBEREGARDEDASSUPPORTINGTHENEWENERGYONEOFTHEMOSTIDEALFORMOFNEWENERGYSOURCESAREABLETODAYANGSOLARPOWERGENERATIONARETHEBESTNEWENERGYRADIATIONINTHEEARTHSSOLARENERGYISVERYSTRONG,ABOUT40MINUTESEXPOSUREINTHEEARTHSSOLARENERGY,WOULDBESUFFICIENTFORTHEGLOBALHUMANENERGYCONSUMPTIONFORONEYEARITCANBESAIDTHATSOLARENERGYISTRULYINEXHAUSTIBLESOURCEOFENERGYANDSOLARPOWERISABSOLUTELYCLEAN,NOPOLLUTIONSOLARPOWERGENERATIONARETHEREFOREKNOWNASTHEIDEALSOURCEOFENERGYOBTAINEDFROMSOLARPOWER,SUNTHROUGHPHOTOVOLTAICCELLSTRANSFORMTOACHIEVEITWITHOTHERPOWERGENERATIONPRINCIPLEOFTHEPAST,ENTIRELYDIFFERENT,WITHTHEFOLLOWINGCHARACTERISTICS①NODANGEROFDEPLETION;②ABSOLUTELYCLEANFREE;③NOTSUBJECTTOGEOGRAPHICALDISTRIBUTIONOFTHERESOURCESCONSTRAINTS;④NEARESTDEPARTMENTINELECTRICITYGENERATION;⑤ENERGY,HIGHQUALITY;⑥USERSEMOTIONALLYRECEPTIVE;⑦ACCESSTOENERGYTOSPENDASHORTTIMEINADEQUACIESARE①EXPOSUREENERGYDISTRIBUTIONDENSITY,WHICHWASTOOCCUPYAHUGEAREA;②ENERGYOBTAINEDWITHTHEFOURSEASONS,DAYANDNIGHTANDTHECLEARONE,SUCHASMETEOROLOGICALCONDITIONSOVERALL,HOWEVER,ASANEWENERGY,SOLARENERGYHASGREATADVANTAGES,SOTHEIMPORTANCEATTACHEDBYCOUNTRIESINTHEWORLDSOLARPOWERAPPLICATIONSALTHOUGHSOLARPOWERBYDAYANDNIGHT,BAROMETER,SEASONALIMPACT,BUTCANBEDISPERSEDMANNER,SOITISSUITABLEFORFAMILIESTOCARRYOUTSUBEXCITONGENERATION,BUTALSOTOCONNECTTOTHEELECTRICITYNETWORK,MAKINGTHEFAMILYRICHINTHEPOWERMAYBESOLDTOPOWERCOMPANIES,CANBELESSTHANWHENBOUGHTFROMTHEPOWERCOMPANIESIMPLEMENTATIONOFTHISTECHNOLOGYISNOTDIFFICULTTORESOLVE,THEKEYISTOHAVETHEAPPROPRIATELEGALPROTECTIONNOWTHEUNITEDSTATES,JAPANANDOTHERDEVELOPEDCOUNTRIESHAVEENACTEDAPPROPRIATELEGISLATION,TOENSURETHECONDUCTOFDOMESTICSOLARPOWERGENERATIONBENEFITSTOENCOURAGEFAMILIESTOCARRYOUTSOLARPOWERGENERATIONTHEPROSPECTSFORSOLARPOWERGENERATIONSOLARPOWERGENERATIONHASMOREEXCITINGPLANSFIRST,JAPANPLANSTOGENESISREADYUSEOFTHEGROUNDAREAOFDESERTANDOCEANTOGENERATEELECTRICITY,ANDTHROUGHTHESUPERCONDUCTINGCABLEWILLBETHEWORLDSSOLARPOWERSTATIONSINTOAUNIFIEDPOWERGRIDTOTHEGLOBALSUPPLYITISESTIMATEDTHATBY2000,2050,2100,EVENIFTHEWHOLESOLARPOWERWITHGLOBALENERGYSUPPLY,BUTALSOASANAREAOF651,100SQUAREKM,18679MILLIONSQUAREKILOMETERS,82919MILLIONSQUAREKILOMETERS82919MILLIONSQUAREKILOMETERSACCOUNTEDFORONLY23PERCENTOFALLMARINEAREAORALLOFTHEDESERT514,ANDEVENTHESAHARADESERTIS915THEREFORETHISPROGRAMAREPOSSIBLEANOTHERGENERATIONPROGRAMSAREINHEAVENASEARLYAS1980,NASAANDTHEDEPARTMENTOFENERGYHASPROPOSEDBUILDINGASOLARPOWERSTATIONINSPACETHEIDEAOFREADYSYNCHRONOUSORBITINPLACEALONG10KILOMETERSWIDEAND5KILOMETERSOFLARGEFLATPANEL,THETOPCOVEREDWITHSOLARCELLSSOASTOPROVIDEFIVEMILLIONKILOWATTSOFELECTRICITYHOWEVER,THISNEEDSTOBEADDRESSEDTOTHETERRESTRIALWIRELESSTRANSMISSIONPROBLEMHAVEBEENPROPOSEDBYMICROWAVEBEAM,LASERBEAM,SUCHASAVARIETYOFPROGRAMSMODELPLANEWITHTHECURRENTIMPLEMENTATIONHASASHORTRANGE,SHORTTERM,LOWPOWERMICROWAVEWIRELESSPOWERTRANSMISSION,BUTTHEREISSTILLALONGAWAYFROMTHEREALUTILITYOFTHEDISTANCEASCHINASTECHNOLOGICALDEVELOPMENT,IN2006,CHINAHASTHREECOMPANIESINTOTHEGLOBALTOPTEN,INDICATESTHATCHINAWILLBECOMETHEWORLDSNEWENERGYTECHNOLOGYCENTERSINTHEWORLD,THEWORLDSWIDERANGEOFPHOTOVOLTAICAPPLICATIONS,HASLEDTOTHECURRENTLACKOFARERAWMATERIALSUPPLYANDPRICES,WENEEDTECHNOLOGYTOPROMOTEATTHESAMETIME,WEMUSTADOPTANEWTECHNOLOGYINORDERTOSUBSTANTIALLYREDUCECOSTS,FORTHISNEWENERGYTOPROVIDETHEDRIVINGFORCEBEHINDTHELONGTERMDEVELOPMENTTHEUSEOFSOLARENERGYISDIVIDEDINTOSEVERALMAINAREASFAMILIESWITHSMALLSOLARPOWERPLANTS,LARGESCALEGRIDANDPOWERPLANTS,BUILDINGINTEGRATEDPHOTOVOLTAICCURTAINWALLS,SOLARSTREETLAMPS,STREETLAMPSCOMPLEMENTARYSCENERY,BEAUTIFULCOMPLEMENTARYPOWERSUPPLYSYSTEMANDSOON,NOWTHEMAINAPPLICATIONFORBUILDINGCOMPLEMENTARYSYSTEMSINTEGRATIONANDSCENERYPRINCIPLESOFSOLARPOWERGENERATIONSOLARCELLSAREONEHASTORESPONDTOLIGHTANDCANCONVERTLIGHTENERGYINTOELECTRICPOWERDEVICESPHOTOVOLTAICEFFECTTOPRODUCETHEMATERIALHASMANYTYPESSUCHASSILICON,POLYSILICON,AMORPHOUSSILICON,GALLIUMARSENIDE,COPPERINDIUMSELENIUMTHEIRPOWERISBASICALLYTHESAMEPRINCIPLE,ITISCRYSTALASANEXAMPLETODESCRIBETHEPROCESSOFLIGHTGENERATIONPTYPECRYSTALLINESILICONDOPEDPHOSPHORUSAVAILABLETHROUGHNTYPESILICON,THEFORMATIONOFPNJUNCTIONWHENTHELIGHTIRRADIATIONSURFACEOFSOLARCELLS,SILICONMATERIALWASPARTOFPHOTONABSORPTION;PHOTONENERGYTRANSFERTOTHESILICONATOM,SOTHATELECTRONTRANSFEROCCURREDINVIETNAM,AFREEELECTRONINTHEPNJUNCTIONFORMEDONBOTHSIDESOFAGGLOMERATIONPOTENTIALDIFFERENCE,WHENTHEEXTERNALWHENCONNECTEDTOTHECIRCUIT,INWHICHTHEROLEOFVOLTAGE,THEREWILLBECURRENTFLOWTHROUGHEXTERNALCIRCUITRYPRODUCEACERTAINOUTPUTPOWERTHESUBSTANCEOFTHISPROCESSAREPHOTONENERGYINTOELECTRICALENERGYCONVERSIONPROCESSTHEAPPLICATIONOFSOLARCELLSTHE60SOFLASTCENTURY,SCIENTISTSHAVEAPPLIEDTOTHESPACESOLARCELLTECHNOLOGYCOMMUNICATIONSATELLITEPOWERSUPPLY,THEENDOFLASTCENTURY,CONSTANTLYINTHEHUMANSOULSEARCHINGPROCESS,THEPHOTOVOLTAICPOWERGENERATIONSUCHACLEANANDDIRECTFORMSOFENERGYHAVEBEENMORECORDIAL,NOTONLYINSPACEAPPLICATIONS,INMANYAREASISALSOTOSHOWTHEIRTALENTSSUCHASSOLARGARDENLIGHTS,SOLARHOUSEHOLDPOWERSYSTEM,THEINDEPENDENTVILLAGEPOWERSUPPLYSYSTEMS,PHOTOVOLTAICPUMPINGDRINKINGWATERORIRRIGATION,COMMUNICATIONSPOWERSUPPLY,THEOILPIPELINECATHODICPROTECTION,FIBEROPTICCOMMUNICATIONSPOWERSUPPLYPUMPINGSTATIONS,DESALINATIONSYSTEMS,CITIESANDTOWNSINROADSIGNS,HIGHWAYROADSIGNSANDSOONADVANCEDEUROPEANCOUNTRIESANDAMERICAWILLBEINCORPORATEDINTOTHECITYOFPHOTOVOLTAICPOWERSYSTEMSANDREMOTEAREASOFTHENATURALWORLDINTOTHEVILLAGEPOWERSUPPLYSYSTEMDEVELOPMENTSOLARCELLSWITHACOMBINATIONOFBUILDINGSYSTEMSHASBECOMETHETRENDOFINDUSTRIALIZATION太阳能太阳产生能量已有数十亿年,太阳能是太阳辐射到地球的能量。太阳能可以直接或间接地转换为其他形式的能源,如热能和电能。主要缺点问题,或者问题有待克服太阳能是1间歇方式到达地球表面,2大面积收集在一个大容器中。随着经济的发展、社会的进步,人们对能源提出越来越高的要求,寻找新能源成为当前人类面临的迫切课题。现有能源主要有3种,即火电、水电和核电。水电要淹没大量土地,有可能导致生态环境破坏,而且大型水库一旦塌崩,后果将不堪设想。另外,一个国家的水力资源也是有限的,而且还要受季节的影响。核电在正常情况下固然是干净的,但万一发生核泄漏,后果同样是可怕的。前苏联切尔诺贝利核电站事故,已使900万人受到了不同程度的损害,而且这一影响并未终止。这些都迫使人们去寻找新能源。新能源要同时符合两个条件一是蕴藏丰富不会枯竭;二是安全、干净,不会威胁人类和破坏环境。目前找到的新能源主要有两种,一是太阳能,二是燃料电池。另外,风力发电也可算是辅助性的新能源。其中,最理想的新能源是大阳能。太阳能发电是最理想的新能源照射在地球上的太阳能非常巨大,大约40分钟照射在地球上的太阳能,便足以供全球人类一年能量的消费。可以说,太阳能是真正取之不尽、用之不竭的能源。而且太阳能发电绝对干净,不产生公害。所以太阳能发电被誉为是理想的能源。从太阳能获得电力,需通过大阳电池进行光电变换来实现。它同以往其他电源发电原理完全不同,具有以下特点①无枯竭危险;②绝对干净(无公害);③不受资源分布地域的限制;④可在用电处就近发电;⑤能源质量高;⑥使用者从感情上容易接受;⑦获取能源花费的时间短。不足之处是①照射的能量分布密度小,即要占用巨大面积;②获得的能源同四季、昼夜及阴晴等气象条件有关。但总的说来,瑕不掩瑜,作为新能源,太阳能具有极大优点,因此受到世界各国的重视。太阳能发电的应用太阳能发电虽受昼夜、晴雨、季节的影响,但可以分散地进行,所以它适于各家各户分激进行发电,而且要联接到供电网络上,使得各个家庭在电力富裕时可将其卖给电力公司,不足时又可从电力公司买入。实现这一点的技术不难解决,关键在于要有相应的法律保障。现在美国、日本等发达国家都已制定了相应法律,保证进行太阳能发电的家庭利益,鼓励家庭进行太阳能发电。太阳能发电的前景太阳能发电有更加激动人心的计划。一是日本提出的创世纪计划。准备利用地面上沙漠和海洋面积进行发电,并通过超导电缆将全球太阳能发电站联成统一电网以便向全球供电。据测算,到2000年、2050年、2100年,即使全用太阳能发电供给全球能源,占地也不过为6511万平方公里、18679万平方公里、82919万平方公里。82919万平方公里才占全部海洋

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