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外文翻译--机械齿轮.doc

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外文翻译--机械齿轮.doc

英文原文MACHINERY,MACHINAMECHINEDERIVEDFROMTHEGREEKANDLATIN,MECHANICALGEARFIGURE1MEANSCLEVERDESIGN,ASAGENERALMECHANICALCONCEPT,CANBETRACEDBACKTOTHEROMANPERIOD,MAINISTODISTINGUISHANDHANDTOOLSOFMODERNCHINESELANGUAGETHEWORDMACHINEISORGANIZATIONISMECHANISMOFTHEENGLISHANDTHEFLOORBOARDOFTHEMACHINETHEMACHINEMECHANICALCHARACTERISTICSAREMACHINERYISACOMBINATIONOFPHYSICALCOMPONENTSTODETERMINETHERELATIVEMOTIONOFMECHANICALPARTSSOTHEMACHINECANCONVERTMECHANICALENERGYORACCOMPLISHUSEFULMECHANICALWORK,ISTHEMOSTBASICCONCEPTINMODERNMECHANICALPRINCIPLE,THEMODERNCONCEPTOFCHINESEMACHINERYMOREDERIVEDFROMTHEWORDMACHINEOFTHEJAPANESE,JAPANESEMACHINERYSHOULDSUPPLIESTODOTHEFOLLOWINGDEFINITIONTHATIS,INACCORDANCEWITHTHEFOLLOWINGTHREECHARACTERISTICSISCALLEDMECHANICALMACHINE1,THEMACHINERYISACOLLECTIONOFOBJECTS,CONCENTRATIONTOTHEVARIOUSPARTSAREALSODIFFICULTTODEFORMATION2,THEOBJECTMUSTIMPLEMENTTHEMUTUALMOVEMENT,SINGLE,REGULATIONS3,TOEXERTENERGYINTOAUSEFULFORM,ORCONVERTEDINTOMECHANICALWORKEFFECTIVELYMECHANISMANDMACHINEDEFINITIONISDERIVEDFROMTHEMECHANICALENGINEERING,BELONGSTOTHEMOSTBASICCONCEPTOFMODERNMECHANICALPRINCIPLES,MECHANICALMOREMODERNCONCEPTSDERIVEDFROMCHINESEOFTHEWORDMACHINEINJAPANESEALLHAVECERTAINSPORTSMACHINEANDTHEFLOORBOARDOFTHESYSTEMSUCHASMACHINETOOLS,TRACTORS,ETCMECHANICALENGINEERINGISRELATEDTOTHETHEORETICALBASISOFNATURALSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY,MECHANICALGEARFIGURE2COMBINEDWITHTHEACCUMULATIONOFTECHNICALEXPERIENCEINTHEPRODUCTIONPRACTICE,STUDYANDSOLVEINTHEDEVELOPMENT,DESIGN,MANUFACTURE,INSTALLATION,USEANDREPAIROFALLKINDSOFMACHINERYANAPPLIEDSUBJECTOFTHEORETICALANDPRACTICALPROBLEMSEVERYDEVELOPMENTINTHEFIELDOFENGINEERINGREQUIREMENTSINMECHANICALENGINEERINGHASADAPTEDTOTHEDEVELOPMENT,NEEDMECHANICALENGINEERINGPROVIDESTHENECESSARYMACHINERYSOMEMECHANICALINVENTIONANDIMPROVEMENT,ANDCOULDLEADTONEWENGINEERINGTECHNOLOGYANDTHEEMERGENCEANDDEVELOPMENTOFNEWINDUSTRYLARGEMACHINERYMANUFACTURINGSUCCESS,FOREXAMPLE,LEDTOTHEESTABLISHMENTOFELECTRICPOWERSYSTEM;THEINVENTIONOFTHELOCOMOTIVELEDTOTHERISEOFRAILWAYENGINEERINGANDRAILWAYUNDERTAKINGS;THEINVENTIONOFTHEINTERNALCOMBUSTIONENGINES,GASTURBINES,ROCKETENGINES,ETCANDPROGRESS,ASWELLASTHESUCCESSFULDEVELOPMENTOFAIRCRAFTANDSPACECRAFTHASLEDTOTHERISEOFAVIATIONANDAEROSPACEBUSINESS;THEDEVELOPMENTOFHIGHVOLTAGEEQUIPMENTLEADTOTHESUCCESSOFMANYNEWSYNTHETICCHEMICALENGINEERINGANDSOONMECHANICALENGINEERINGISINALLRESPECTSUNDERTHEPRESSUREOFRISINGDEMANDFORDEVELOPMENT,ATTHESAMETIMEFROMDIFFERENTDISCIPLINESANDTHEADVANCEMENTOFTHETECHNOLOGYIMPROVEDANDINNOVATIVEABILITYMACHINERYISASIMPLEDEVICE,ITCANTRANSFERENERGY,FORCEFROMONEPLACETOANOTHERPLACEMECHANICALGEARFIG3ITCANCHANGETHESHAPEOFTHEOBJECTSTRUCTURESTOCREATENEWOBJECTSINLIFE,ALLAROUNDUSTHEREARETHOUSANDSOFDIFFERENTKINDSOFMACHINERYINTHEWORKFORUSEVERYDAYUNDERSTANDINGOFMECHANICALISAMECHANICALDEVICE,WHICHISALLKINDSOFMACHINESANDEQUIPMENTFROMTHEPOINTOFVIEWOFMECHANICALPROFESSIONALMACHINERYHASAVERYIMPORTANTBASICPOSITIONMACHINERYISAMODERNSOCIETYTHEFIVEFACTORSOFPRODUCTIONANDSERVICETHATIS,PEOPLE,MONEY,ENERGY,MATERIALSANDMACHINERYWHENMARXTOINDUSTRIALSOCIETY,INDUSTRIALSOCIETY,ESPECIALLYINBIGINDUSTRIALSOCIETY,WHICHISMACHINEPRODUCTIONMACHINEAGEWHETHERFROMLIFEINCONTACTWITHALLKINDSOFPHYSICALDEVICES,SUCHASTELEPHONES,ELECTRICLIGHTS,TELEVISION,REFRIGERATOR,ELEVATORANDSOONCONTAINSTHEMACHINE,ORINCLUDEDINTHEGENERALMACHINERY,ANDFROMTHEPOINTOFPRODUCTION,ALLKINDSOFMACHINETOOLS,AUTOMATIONEQUIPMENT,AIRCRAFT,SHIPS,GODFIVE,SIX,ANDSOON,ARESHORTOFMACHINERYSO,MACHINERYISONEOFTHEFOUNDATIONSOFMODERNSOCIETYIFSOMEONESAYAGRICULTUREISTHEFOUNDATION,ALSOUNDERSTANDABLE,BUTINMODERNSOCIETY,MECHANICALSERVEASTHEBASISFORTHERESTOFTHEINDUSTRYANDENGINEERING,ITISNOEXAGGERATIONTOTHINKISTHEBIGPILLARINSOCIETYANYMODERNINDUSTRIALANDENGINEERINGAPPLICATIONSREQUIREMACHINERY,ISTHEPEOPLESDAILYLIFE,AREINCREASINGLYUSEDALLKINDSOFMACHINERY,SUCHASCARS,BICYCLES,WATCHESANDCLOCKS,CAMERAS,WASHINGMACHINE,REFRIGERATOR,AIRCONDITIONER,VACUUMCLEANERS,ETCTHEFIRSTMACHINEISDEFINEDASTHEROMANARCHITECTVITRUVIUSPOLLIOVITRUVIIINITMECHANICALGEARFIGURE4FORBUILDINGTENBOOKMAINLYFORCARRYINGHEAVYTHINGSWORKMACHINERYANDTOOLSTHEDIFFERENCEBETWEENMECHANICALMACHANEANDTOOLSORGANONSEEMTOHAVETHEFOLLOWINGDIFFERENCESBETWEENTHEMACHINEISMOSTARTIFICIALANDVERYBIGPOWERANDEFFECT,SUCHASHEAVYBALLISTAANDGRAPESPRESSWHILETHETOOLISAMANIPULATIONOFTHESTAFFCAREFULLYPROCESSING,TOACHIEVETHEPURPOSEOFSUCHASWERETHESHAPEOFLIGHTRANGEBALLISTAORCIRCULARSPIRALDEVICETHUS,TOOLSANDMACHINERYAREUSEDINTHEINDISPENSABLETHINGTHEANCIENTGREEKFORCYLINDRICALGEARSALEXANDRIA,MRHIROHERONOFALEXANDRIAINTHE1STCENTURYFIRSTDISCUSSEDTHEBASICELEMENTSOFMACHINERY,MECHANICALELEMENTSCONSIDEREDTOBEFIVECLASSESWHEELANDSHAFT,LEVER,PULLEY,WEDGE,SPIRALHIROSDISCOURSEREFLECTSTHECLASSICALMECHANICALCHARACTERISTICSBCCHINAHASGUIDELINESONTHEAPPLICATIONOFCOMPLEXGEARSYSTEM,THEINCENSEBURNERINTHEAPPLICATIONOFTHEPERMANENTCONTROLLEVELOFTHEBOGIEANDOTHERPARTSOFACROSSANNOTATIONS,SAIDTHEMACHINE,THECROSSBOWTOOTH;ENCLOSED,THEARROWAROUNDSAIDWENJIEZIEXPLANATIONOFMACHINEISMACHINE,THEMAINMOVER,REFERSTOTHECROSSBOWMECHANICALINLEIPZIG,GERMANYIN1724ANDLIAOPOULTERLEOPOLDISDEFINEDASMACHINESORTOOLSISAKINDOFARTIFICIALDEVICE,USEITTOPRODUCEFAVORABLEMOVEMENT;ATTHESAMETIMECANTUSEOTHERWAYSTOSAVETIMEANDPOWER,ITCANSAVEBRITISHMECHANICS,WILLISTRULYILLISINITSAGENCYTHEORYTHEPRINCIPLEOFMECHANISM,1841GIVETHEDEFINITIONOFMACHINERYGEARSPEEDREDUCERANYMACHINEMACHINEAREMADEINAVARIETYOFDIFFERENTWAYSOFCONNECTINGASETOFARTIFACTSTHATMAKEITACOMPONENT,THECOMPONENTWILLHAPPENINACERTAINSPORT,THESEARTIFACTSANDTHEINITIALMOVEMENTOFTHECOMPONENTSOFRELATIVEMOTIONRELATIONSHIPDEPENDSONTHENATUREOFTHECONNECTIONSBETWEENTHEMGERMANMACHINERYATLELOROFREULEAUXINTHETHEORYOFKINEMATICSTHEORETISCHEKINEMATIK,GRUNDZUGEEINERTHEORIECHINAISTHEWORLDSFIRSTNATIONALMACHINERYDEVELOPMENTCHINESEMECHANICALENGINEERINGTECHNOLOGYNOTONLYHASALONGHISTORYANDSPLENDIDACHIEVEMENTSINCHINESEISNOTONLYTHEMATERIALCULTUREANDSOCIALECONOMICDEVELOPMENTPLAYSANIMPORTANTROLEINTHEWORLD,ANDTOPROMOTETHEPROGRESSOFCIVILIZATION,TECHNOLOGYHASMADEGREATCONTRIBUTIONTOCHINESETRADITIONALMACHINEANDINALONGPERIODAHEADINTHEWORLDINMODERNTIMES,ESPECIALLYFROMTHEEARLY18THCENTURY,DUETOTHENINETEENFORTIES,DUETOTHEECONOMICANDSOCIALREASONS,SUCHASTHECHINAMACHINERYINDUSTRY,STAGNATION,INTHE100YEARSISWESTERNBOURGEOISPOLITICALREVOLUTIONANDINDUSTRIALREVOLUTION,MECHANICALSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGYISDEVELOPINGRAPIDLY,ANDFARMORETHANTHELEVELOFCHINASO,CHINAMECHANICALDEVELOPMENTLEVELANDTHEWESTERNGAPWIDENS,SHARPLYTOTHE19THCENTURYMIDDLEBEHINDWESTERNONEHUNDREDYEARSAFTERTHEFOUNDINGOFNEWCHINA,ESPECIALLYINTHEPAST30YEARS,OURCOUNTRYSMECHANICALSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGYDEVELOPMENTSPEEDTOTHEMECHANICALPRODUCTLARGESCALE,PRECISION,AUTOMATIONANDDISCUSSESTHETRENDOFDEVELOPMENTINSOMEASPECTSHASREACHEDOREXCEEDEDTHEWORLDADVANCEDLEVELGENERALLYSPEAKING,CURRENTLYCHINAMECHANICALSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGYACHIEVEMENTISHUGE,DEVELOPINGFAST,HIGHLEVELOFUNPRECEDENTEDINTHISPERIOD,CHINAHASNOENDOFMECHANICALSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGYWILLDEVELOPTOAHIGHERLEVELASLONGASWECANADOPTTHECORRECTPOLICY,WITHGOODTECHNOLOGYDEVELOPMENTANDINNOVATION,OURMACHINERYINDUSTRYANDMECHANICALTECHNOLOGYCANREVITALIZE,LEADINGTOTHEDEVELOPMENTTRENDOFMECHANICALINDUSTRYJUSTSMALLRAMMINGMACHINERYINTHE1960S,CHINAMECHANICALVERYSMALLTAMPLACK,MANYSMALLVENUESRAMMINGBASICALLYUSESARTIFICIALRAMMINGEARLY1960S,CHANGSHACONSTRUCTIONMACHINERYINSTITUTEANDBEIJINGARCHITECTURALENGINEERINGINSTITUTE,ETC,THETECHNICALINNOVATIONACHIEVEMENTSINMASSONTHEBASISOFSUMMINGUPCHINESECHARACTERISTICINVENTEDTHEBREASTSTROKERAMMINGMACHINE,1962EXCEEDEDNATIONALSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGYTHEBREASTSTROKERAMMINGMACHINESTRUCTUREISSIMPLE,EASYTOUSEANDMAINTENANCEIN1960S,SOONBECAMETHEDOMINANTPRODUCTSTOCONSOLIDATEMACHINERYACCORDINGTONOTCOMPLETECOUNTBREASTSTROKETAMPCUMULATIVEYIELDREACHEDMORETHAN50,000MACHINE,INTHEECONOMICDEVELOPMENTOFOURCOUNTRYHASPLAYEDANIMPORTANTROLESINCE1970S,THEBREASTSTROKERAMMINGMACHINEWASGRADUALLYMOREADVANCEDPERFORMANCEOFVIBRATIONSHOCKRAMANDVIBRATINGPLATERAM,NOWREPLACEDBYLAYINGMACHINEHASRARELYBREASTSTROKE,BASICALLYBEELIMINATEDIN1964,CHANGSHACONSTRUCTIONMACHINERYINSTITUTEHB120DEVELOPEDMOVABLETYPE,TYPEOFSHANGHAIBEGANLAYINGMACHINE,ENGINEERINGMACHINEPRODUCTIONMAINLYBYTIANJINMUNICIPALLATER,ANNUALPRODUCTIONENGINEERINGMACHINERYDONGTINGABOUT200INTHE1980S,MOVABLETYPERAMMINGMACHINEPRODUCTQUALITYHASINCREASEDGREATLY,HAVEEXPORTEDTOSOUTHEASTASIAANDAFRICASINCE1990S,INTERNALCOMBUSTIONTYPERAMMINGMACHINEPRODUCTIONSALES,ANDGRADUALLYDECREASEDINONLYAFEWSMALLPRIVATEENTERPRISEPRODUCTIONIN1977,CHANGSHACONSTRUCTIONMACHINERYFACTORYBUILDINGSANDDEVELOPEDINLIUZHOUHZR250TYPEANDTHEHZR70TYPEVIBRATINGPLATERAM,THESETWOKINDSOFPRODUCTSIN1979AND1982PASSEDBYTHEMINISTRYOFCONSTRUCTIONOFTHEORGANIZATIONTHENYIWUBUILDINGCONSTRUCTIONMACHINERYFACTORY,SIPING,ANYANGVIBRATORSFACTORY,TIANJINMUNICIPALENGINEERINGMACHINERYDONGTINGANDOTHERENTERPRISESHAVESTARTEDPRODUCINGVIBRATINGPLATERAMIN1986,CHANGSHACONSTRUCTIONMACHINERYRESEARCHANDDEVELOPALARGERHZR450TYPEOFVIBRATINGPLATERAMSINCE1990S,VIBRATINGPLATERAMINOURCOUNTRYHASDEVELOPEDVERYQUICKLY,VARIETIESOFPRODUCTS,SPECIFICATIONSANDINCREASEPRODUCTIONENTERPRISES,FOREIGNVIBRATINGPLATERAMGRADUALLYTOENTERTHECHINESEMARKETIN1983,CHANGSHACONSTRUCTIONMACHINERYINSTITUTEANDTHEJOINTDEVELOPMENTOFHUBEIVIBRATIONINTHEFIRSTHZR70TYPEVIBRATIONSHOCKRAMMING,1984,PASSEDBYTHEMINISTRYOFCONSTRUCTION,ORGANIZATIONCONSTRUCTIONTECHNOLOGYPROGRESSIN1985WONPRIZESDUETOTHEVIBRATIONIMPACTCOMPACTIONRESULTHASGOODRAMMING,PRODUCTIVITY,HIGHVOLUMEANDWEIGHTOFSMALL,LIGHTWEIGHTFLEXIBLEOUTSTANDINGCHARACTERISTICS,DEEPLYUSERETC,OBTAINEDARAPIDPROMOTION,ANDSOONZIJIANGDEVELOPMENTTOTHEFACTORY,XINXIANGMUNICIPALENGINEERINGMACHINETOOLPLANTANDTIANJINDOZENS

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