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外文翻译--模具在工业生产中的地位.doc

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外文翻译--模具在工业生产中的地位.doc

英文原文1DIEPOSITIONININDUSTRIALPRODUCTIONMOLDISAHIGHVOLUMEPRODUCTSWITHTHESHAPETOOL,ISTHEMAINPROCESSOFINDUSTRIALPRODUCTIONEQUIPMENTWITHMOLDCOMPONENTS,WITHHIGHEFFICIENCY,GOODQUALITY,LOWCOST,SAVINGENERGYANDRAWMATERIALSANDASERIESOFADVANTAGES,WITHTHEMOLDWORKPIECESPOSSESSHIGHACCURACY,HIGHCOMPLEXITY,HIGHCONSISTENCY,HIGHPRODUCTIVITYANDLOWCONSUMPTION,OTHERMANUFACTURINGMETHODSCANNOTMATCHHAVEALREADYBECOMEANIMPORTANTMEANSOFINDUSTRIALPRODUCTIONANDTECHNOLOGICALDEVELOPMENTTHEBASISOFTHEMODERNINDUSTRIALECONOMYTHEDEVELOPMENTOFMODERNINDUSTRIALANDTECHNOLOGICALLEVELDEPENDSLARGELYONTHELEVELOFINDUSTRIALDEVELOPMENTDIE,SODIEINDUSTRYTONATIONALECONOMICANDSOCIALDEVELOPMENTWILLPLAYANINCREASINGROLEMARCH1989THESTATECOUNCILPROMULGATEDONTHECURRENTINDUSTRIALPOLICYDECISIONPOINTSINTHEMOLDASTHEMACHINERYINDUSTRYTRANSFORMATIONSEQUENCEOFTHEFIRST,PRODUCTIONANDCAPITALCONSTRUCTIONOFTHESECONDSEQUENCEAFTERTHELARGESCALEPOWERGENERATIONEQUIPMENTANDTHECORRESPONDINGPOWERTRANSMISSIONEQUIPMENT,ESTABLISHTOOLINGINDUSTRYINANIMPORTANTPOSITIONINTHENATIONALECONOMYSINCE1997,THEYHAVETOMOLDANDITSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGYANDEQUIPMENTINCLUDEDINTHECURRENTNATIONALFOCUSONENCOURAGINGTHEDEVELOPMENTOFINDUSTRIES,PRODUCTSANDTECHNOLOGIESCATALOGANDTOENCOURAGEFOREIGNINVESTMENTINDUSTRYDIRECTORYAPPROVEDBYTHESTATECOUNCIL,FROM1997TO2000,MORETHAN80PROFESSIONALMOLDFACTORYOWNED70VATREFUNDOFPREFERENTIALPOLICIESTOSUPPORTMOLDINDUSTRYALLTHESEHAVEFULLYDEMONSTRATEDTHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHESTATECOUNCILANDSTATEDEPARTMENTSTOOLINGINDUSTRYATTENTIONANDSUPPORTMOLDAROUNDTHEWORLDABOUTTHECURRENTANNUALOUTPUTOF60BILLIONUSDOLLARS,JAPAN,THEUNITEDSTATESANDOTHERINDUSTRIALIZEDCOUNTRIESDIEOFINDUSTRIALOUTPUTVALUEOFMORETHANMACHINETOOLINDUSTRY,BEGINNINGIN1997,CHINASINDUSTRIALOUTPUTVALUEHASEXCEEDEDTHEMOLDMACHINETOOLINDUSTRYOUTPUTACCORDINGTOSTATISTICS,HOMEAPPLIANCES,TOYSANDOTHERLIGHTINDUSTRIES,NEARLY90OFTHEPARTSAREINTEGRATEDWITHPRODUCTIONOFCHOPSTICKS;INAIRCRAFT,AUTOMOBILES,AGRICULTURALMACHINERYANDRADIOINDUSTRIES,THEPROPORTIONEXCEEDED60SUCHASAIRCRAFTMANUFACTURING,THEUSEOFACERTAINTYPEOFFIGHTERDIESMORETHAN30,000UNITS,OFWHICHTHEHOST8000SETS,2000SETSOFENGINES,AUXILIARY20000SETSFROMTHEOUTPUTOFVIEW,SINCETHE80S,THEUNITEDSTATES,JAPANANDOTHERINDUSTRIALIZEDCOUNTRIESDIEINDUSTRYOUTPUTVALUEHASEXCEEDEDTHEMACHINETOOLINDUSTRY,ANDTHEREARESTILLRISINGPRODUCTIONTECHNOLOGY,ACCORDINGTOTHEINTERNATIONALASSOCIATIONPREDICTSTHATIN2000,THEPRODUCTBESTPIECESOFROUGH75,50WILLBEFINISHEDMOLDCOMPLETED;METALS,PLASTICS,CERAMICS,RUBBER,BUILDINGMATERIALSANDOTHERINDUSTRIALPRODUCTS,MOSTOFTHEMOLDWILLBECOMPLETEDINMORETHAN50METALPLATES,MORETHAN80OFALLPLASTICPRODUCTS,ESPECIALLYTHROUGHTHEMOLDINTO2THEHISTORICALDEVELOPMENTOFMOLDTHEEMERGENCEOFMOLDCANBETRACEDBACKTHOUSANDSOFYEARSAGO,POTTERYANDBRONZEFOUNDRY,BUTTHELARGESCALEUSEISWITHTHERISEOFMODERNINDUSTRYANDDEVELOPEDTHE19THCENTURY,WITHTHEARMSINDUSTRYGUNSSHELL,WATCHINDUSTRY,RADIOINDUSTRY,DIESAREWIDELYUSEDAFTERWORLDWARII,WITHTHERAPIDDEVELOPMENTOFWORLDECONOMY,ITBECAMEAMASSPRODUCTIONOFHOUSEHOLDAPPLIANCES,AUTOMOBILES,ELECTRONICEQUIPMENT,CAMERAS,WATCHESANDOTHERPARTSTHEBESTWAYFROMAGLOBALPERSPECTIVE,WHENTHEUNITEDSTATESINTHEFOREFRONTOFSTAMPINGTECHNOLOGYMANYDIEOFADVANCEDTECHNOLOGIES,SUCHASSIMPLEMOLD,HIGHEFFICIENCY,MOLD,DIEANDSTAMPINGTHEHIGHLIFEAUTOMATION,MOSTLYORIGINATEDINTHEUNITEDSTATES;ANDSWITZERLAND,FINEBLANKING,COLDINGERMANYEXTRUSIONTECHNOLOGY,PLASTICPROCESSINGOFTHESOVIETUNIONAREATTHEWORLDADVANCED50S,MOLDINDUSTRYFOCUSISBASEDONSUBSCRIBERDEMAND,PRODUCTIONCANMEETTHEPRODUCTREQUIREMENTSOFTHEMOLDMULTIDIEDESIGNRULEOFTHUMB,REFERENCEHASBEENDRAWINGANDPERCEPTUALKNOWLEDGE,ONTHEDESIGNOFMOLDPARTSOFALACKOFREALUNDERSTANDINGOFFUNCTIONFROM1955TO1965,ISTHEPRESSUREPROCESSINGOFEXPLORATIONANDDEVELOPMENTOFTHETIMESTHEMAINCOMPONENTSOFTHEMOLDANDTHESTRESSSTATEOFTHEFUNCTIONOFAMATHEMATICALSUBBRIDGE,ANDTOCONTINUETOAPPLYTOONSITEPRACTICALKNOWLEDGETOMAKESTAMPINGTECHNOLOGYINALLASPECTSOFALEAPINDEVELOPMENTTHERESULTISSUMMARIZEDMOLDDESIGNPRINCIPLES,ANDMAKESTHEPRESSUREMACHINE,STAMPINGMATERIALS,PROCESSINGMETHODS,PLUMWITHASTRUCTURE,MOLDMATERIALS,MOLDMANUFACTURINGMETHOD,THEFIELDOFAUTOMATIONDEVICES,ANEWLOOKTOTHEPRACTICALDIRECTIONOFADVANCE,SOTHATPRESSINGPROCESSINGAPPARATUSCAPABLEOFPRODUCINGQUALITYPRODUCTSFROMTHEFIRSTSTAGEINTOTHE70STOHIGHSPEED,LAUNCHTECHNOLOGY,PRECISION,SECURITY,DEVELOPMENTOFTHESECONDSTAGECONTINUETOEMERGEINTHISPROCESSAVARIETYOFHIGHEFFICIENCY,BUSINESSLIFE,HIGHPRECISIONMULTIFUNCTIONALAUTOMATICSCHOOLTOHELPWITHREPRESENTEDBYTHENUMBEROFWORKINGPLACESASMUCHASOTHERPROGRESSIVEDIEANDDOZENSOFMULTISTATIONTRANSFERSTATIONMODULEONTHISBASIS,HASDEVELOPEDBOTHACONTINUOUSPRESSINGSTATIONTHEREAREMORESLIDEFORMINGSTATIONOFTHEPRESSBENDINGMACHINEINTHEMEANTIME,THEJAPANESESTANDTOTHEWORLDSLARGESTTHEMOLDINTOTHEMICRONLEVELPRECISION,DIELIFE,ALLOYTOOLSTEELMOLDHASREACHEDTENSOFMILLIONSOFTIMES,CARBIDESTEELMOLDTOEACHOFHUNDREDSOFMILLIONSOFTIMESPMINUTESFORSTAMPINGTHENUMBEROFSMALLPRESSESUSUALLY200TO300,UPTO1200TIMESTO1500TIMESINTHEMEANTIME,INORDERTOMEETPRODUCTUPDATESQUICKLY,WITHTHESHORTDURATIONSUCHASCARSMODIFIED,REFURBISHEDTOYS,ETCNEEDAVARIETYOFECONOMICTYPEMOLD,SUCHASZINCALLOYDIEDOWN,POLYURETHANERUBBERMOLD,DIESTEELSKIN,ALSOHASBEENVERYGREATDEVELOPMENTFROMTHEMID70SSOFARCANBESAIDTHATCOMPUTERAIDEDDESIGN,SUPPORTINGTHECONTINUOUSDEVELOPMENTOFMANUFACTURINGTECHNOLOGYOFTHETIMESWITHTHEPRECISIONANDCOMPLEXITYOFMOLDRISING,ACCELERATINGTHEPRODUCTIONCYCLE,THEMOLDINDUSTRY,THEQUALITYOFEQUIPMENTANDPERSONNELAREREQUIREDTOIMPROVERELYONCOMMONPROCESSINGEQUIPMENT,THEIREXPERIENCEANDSKILLSCANNOTMEETTHENEEDSOFMOLDSINCETHE90S,MECHANICALANDELECTRONICTECHNOLOGIESINCLOSECONNECTIONWITHTHEDEVELOPMENTOFNCMACHINETOOLS,SUCHASCNCWIRECUTTINGMACHINE,CNCEDM,CNCMILLING,CNCCOORDINATEGRINDINGMACHINEANDSOONTHEUSEOFCOMPUTERAUTOMATICPROGRAMMING,CONTROLCNCMACHINETOOLSTOIMPROVETHEEFFICIENCYINTHEUSEANDSCOPEINRECENTYEARS,HASDEVELOPEDACOMPUTERTOTIMESHARINGBYTHEWAYAGROUPOFDIRECTMANAGEMENTANDCONTROLOFCNCMACHINETOOLSNNCSYSTEMWITHTHEDEVELOPMENTOFCOMPUTERTECHNOLOGY,COMPUTERSHAVEGRADUALLYINTOTHEMOLDINALLAREAS,INCLUDINGDESIGN,MANUFACTURINGANDMANAGEMENTINTERNATIONALASSOCIATIONFORTHESTUDYOFPRODUCTIONFORECASTSTO2000,ASAMEANSOFLINKSBETWEENDESIGNANDMANUFACTURINGDRAWINGSWILLLOSEITSPRIMARYROLEAUTOMATICDESIGNOFDIEMOSTFUNDAMENTALPOINTISTOESTABLISHTHEMOLDSTANDARDANDDESIGNSTANDARDSTOGETRIDOFTHEPEOPLEOFTHEPAST,ANDPRACTICALEXPERIENCETOJUDGETHECOMPOSITIONOFTHEDESIGNCENTER,WEMUSTTAKEPASTEXPERIENCESANDWAYSOFTHINKING,FORSERIES,NUMERICALVALUE,THENUMBEROFTYPEBASED,ASTHEDESIGNCRITERIATOTHECOMPUTERSTORECOMPONENTSAREDRYBECAUSEOFMOLDCONSTITUTESAMILLIONOTHERDIFFERENCES,TOCOMEUPWITHACANADAPTTOVARIOUSPARTSOFTHEDESIGNSOFTWAREALMOSTIMPOSSIBLEBUTSOMEPRODUCTSDONOTCHANGETHESHAPEOFPARTS,MOLDSTRUCTUREHASCERTAINRULES,CANBESUMMEDUPFORTHEAUTOMATICDESIGNOFSOFTWAREIFAJAPANESECOMPANYSCDMSYSTEMFORPROGRESSIVEDIEDESIGNANDMANUFACTURING,INCLUDINGTHEIMPORTATIONOFPARTSOFTHEFIGURE,ROUGHSTART,STRIPLAYOUT,DETERMINETHESIZEANDSTANDARDTEMPLATES,ASSEMBLYDRAWINGANDPARTS,THEOUTPUTNCPROGRAMFORCNCMACHININGCENTERANDLINECUTTINGPROGRAM,ETC,USEDIN20OFTHETIMEBYHAND,REDUCETHEIRWORKINGHOURSTO35HOURS;FROMJAPANINTHEEARLY80SWILLBETHREEDIMENSIONALCAD/CAMSYSTEMFORAUTOMOTIVEPANELDIECURRENTLY,THEPHYSICALPARTSSCANNINGINPUT,MAPLINESANDDATAINPUT,GEOMETRICFORM,DISPLAY,GRAPHICS,ANNOTATIONSANDTHEDATAISAUTOMATICALLYPROGRAMMED,RESULTINGINEFFECTIVECONTROLMACHINETOOLCONTROLSYSTEMOFPOSTPROCESSINGDOCUMENTSHAVEREACHEDAHIGHLEVEL;COMPUTERSIMULATIONCAETECHNOLOGYHASMADESOMEACHIEVEMENTSATHIGHLEVELS,CAD/CAM/CAEINTEGRATION,THATDATAISINTEGRATED,CANTRANSMITINFORMATIONDIRECTLYWITHEACHOTHERACHIEVENETWORKPRESENTONLYAFEWFOREIGNMANUFACTURERSCANDOIT3CHINASMOLDINDUSTRYANDITSDEVELOPMENTTRENDDIEMOULDINDUSTRYSTATUSDUETOHISTORICALREASONSFORTHEFORMATIONOFCLOSED,BIGANDCOMPLETEENTERPRISEFEATURES,MOSTENTERPRISESINCHINAAREEQUIPPEDWITHMOLDWORKSHOP,INFACTORYMATCHINGSTATUSSINCETHELATE70SHAVEAMOLDTHECONCEPTOFINDUSTRIALIZATIONANDSPECIALIZATIONOFPRODUCTIONPRODUCTIONEFFICIENCYISNOTHIGH,POORECONOMICRETURNSMOLDPRODUCTIONINDUSTRYISSMALLANDSCATTERED,CROSSINDUSTRY,CAPITALINTENSIVE,PROFESSIONAL,COMMERCIALANDTECHNICALMANAGEMENTLEVELARERELATIVELYLOWACCORDINGTOINCOMPLETESTATISTICS,THEREARENOWSPECIALIZEDINMANUFACTURINGMOLD,THEPRODUCTSUPPORTINGMOLDFACTORYWORKSHOPFACTORYNEAR17000,ABOUT600000EMPLOYEES,ANNUALOUTPUTVALUEREACHED20BILLIONYUANMOLDHOWEVER,THEEXISTINGCAPACITYOFTHEMOLDANDDIEINDUSTRYCANONLYMEETTHEDEMANDOF60,STILLCANNOTMEETTHENEEDSOFNATIONALECONOMICDEVELOPMENTATPRESENT,THEDOMESTICNEEDSOFLARGE,SOPHISTICATED,COMPLEXANDLONGLIFEOFTHEMOLDALSORELYMAINLYONIMPORTSACCORDINGTOCUSTOMSSTATISTICS,IN1997630MILLIONUSDOLLARSWORTHOFIMPORTSMOLD,NOTINCLUDINGTHEIMPORTOFMOLDTOGETHERWITHTHEEQUIPMENT;IN1997ONLY78MILLIONUSDOLLARSEXPORTMOLDATPRESENTTHETECHNOLOGICALLEVELOFCHINADIEMOULDINDUSTRYANDMANUFACTURINGCAPACITY,CHINASNATIONALECONOMYINTHEWEAKLINKSANDBOTTLENECKSCONSTRAININGSUSTAINABLEECONOMICDEVELOPMENT31RESEARCHONTHESTRUCTUREOFINDUSTRIALPRODUCTSMOLDINACCORDANCEWITHTHEDIVISIONOFCHINAMOULDINDUSTRYASSOCIATION,CHINAMOLDISDIVIDEDINTO10BASICCATEGORIES,WHICH,STAMPINGDIEANDPLASTICMOLDINGTWOCATEGORIESACCOUNTEDFORTHEMAINPARTCALCULATEDBYOUTPUT,PRESENT,CHINAACCOUNTSFORABOUT50DIESTAMPING,PLASTICMOLDINGDIEABOUT20,WIREDRAWINGDIETOOLABOUT10OFTHEWORLDSADVANCEDINDUSTRIALCOUNTRIESANDREGIONS,THEPROPORTIONOFPLASTICFORMINGDIEDIEGENERALOFTHETOTALOUTPUTVALUE40MOSTOFOURSTAMPINGDIEMOLDFORTHESIMPLE,SINGLEPROCESSMODEANDMEETTHEMOLDS,PRECISIONDIE,PRECISIONMULTIPOSITIONPROGRESSIVEDIEISALSOONEOFTHEFEW,DIELESSTHAN100MILLIONTIMESTHEAVERAGELIFEOFTHEMOLDREACHED100MILLIONTIMESTHEMAXIMUMLIFEOFMORETHANACCURACY35UM,MORETHAN50PROGRESSIVESTATION,ANDTHEINTERNATIONALLIFEOFTHEDIE600MILLIONTIMESTHEHIGHESTAVERAGELIFEOFTHEDIE50MILLIONTIMESCOMPAREDTOTHEMID80SATTHEINTERNATIONALADVANCEDLEVELCHINASPLASTICMOLDINGMOLDDESIGN,PRODUCTIONTECHNOLOGYSTARTEDRELATIVELYLATE,THEOVERALLLEVELOFLOWCURRENTLYASINGLECAVITY,ASIMPLEMOLDCAVITY70,ANDSTILLDOMINANTASOPHISTICATEDMULTICAVITYMOLDPLASTICINJECTIONMOLD,PLASTICINJECTIONMOLDHASBEENABLETOMULTICOLORPRELIMINARYDESIGNANDMANUFACTURINGMOULDISABOUT80MILLIONTIMESTHEAVERAGELIFESPANISABOUT,THEMAINDIFFERENCEISTHELARGEDEFORMATIONOFMOLDCOMPONENTS,EXCESSBURRSIDEOFALARGE,POORSURFACEQUALITY,EROSIONANDCORROSIONSERIOUSMOLDCAVITY,THEMOLDCA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