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外文翻译--消防.doc

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外文翻译--消防.doc

英文原文FireFightingAlongwiththeourcountryeconomicdevelopmentrapiddevelopment,thelivesofthepeoplelevelunceasingenhancement,thecityusestobedaybydayanxious,urgesthebuildingtofacethedirectionisdeveloping.Thiskindofhighlevelcivilconstructionrepairneededmaterialsandthewayalsomorehastenthediversification,andalongwithuseselectricitytheloadandcoalgasconsumptionquantityenlarging,proposedtothefireautoalarmsystemdesignishigher,astricterrequest.Inordertoguaranteethepeoplelifeandpropertythesecurity,thefireautoalarmsystemdesignhasbecomeinthehighlevelcivilconstructiondesignoneofmostimportantdesigncontents.Presentlybasedontheauthorfireofautoalarmsystemdesignoverseeingworkinthehighlevelcivilbuildingexperience,proposedinpresentnationalrelatedstandardandstandarduncleartruedetailshallowopinion,byforthecolleaguestodiscussandtopointoutmistakes.First,designbasisThefireautoalarmsystemdesignisaspecializedverystrongtechnologywork,atthesametimealsohastheverystrongpolicytype.Therefore,firstshouldbeclearaboutthefollowingdesignbasis1st,mustgraspthearchitecturaldesignfireprotectionstandard,thesystemdesignstandard,theequipmentmanufacturestandard,theinstallmentconstructionapprovalstandardandtheadministrationlawsandregulationsandsoonfivebigaspectsfirelawsandregulations,andinpracticalunderstandingpresentcountryrelatedstandardandstandardpositivewordMust,besupposed,tobesuitable,mayandthereversesidewordStrictlyprohibits,shouldnot,nothave,nottobesuitablethemeaning.2nd,mustaimathighlevelcivilbuildingfunction,useandtheprotectionobjectfireprotectionrank,earnestlycarriesoutthepresentnationalrelatedstandardandthestandard,earnestlytreatsthepublicsecurityfirepreventionsurveillancedepartmenttheexaminationandapprovalopinion.Second,fireautoalarmsystemequipmentestablishmentFiredetectorestablishmentOpenswideeitherthesealorthestairhallshouldalonedividethesearchcoverage,andeach23establishafiredetector.Thefirstroomincludingguardsagainstinfrontofsmokestairhallinfrontofroom,fireelevatorroom,fireelevatorwithguardsagainstthefrontroomwhichsmokestairhallcomesinhandyandtheaisleshoulddistinguishalonetodividethesearchcoverage,speciallyfronttheroomandtheliftwell,thescatteredstairhallandtheaisleareinterlinked,hastimethefirehazetobeeasiertogatherortoflow,isthepersonneldisperseswhichsavesgoalwiththefireprevention,thereforeshouldinstallthefiredetector.Regardingcommonelevatorinfrontofroomalthoughisnotthepersonneldisperses,butthisfrontroomandtheliftwellareinterlinked,hastimethefirehazetobealsoeasytogatherortoflow,suitablyalonedividesthesearchcoverageandinstallsthefiredetector.TheelectriccableshaftthereforeiseasytoformpullsoutthesmokeinflammationthechannelHaswhenthefirethefireintensitynoteasilyextendsalongtheelectriccableburns,forthis,thehighlevelcivilconstructiondesignfireprotectionstandardandthecivilconstructionelectricitydesignstandardseparatelyproposesthedetailedspecificstipulationintheconstructionandintheelectricwireorontheelectriccableshaping.Butconsideredimplementsspecificallythedifficultyandthepresentsituation,theelectriccableshaftinstallsthefiredetectorisextremelyessential,andcoordinatestheshaftthefireprotectionseparationrequest,each23oreachlevelinstalls.Theelevatormachineroomshouldinstallthefiredetector,itselevatoristheimportantverticaltransportationvehicleItstwoelevatormachineroomhashasthefireriskItsthreeliftwellexistenceessentialopensthehole,likethelevelgateopensbetweenthehole,theairvent,thebetweenpermanenceopenstheholewiththeelevatormachineroomorthepulleyandsoonItsfourwhenhasthefire,theliftwelloftenbecomesthefireintensityspreadthechannel,iseasytothreatentheelevatormachineroomthefacility.Therefore,theelevatormachineroomestablishesthefiredetectorisnecessary,crownofalsosuitableestablishmentfiredetectorliftwell.2nd,themanualfirereportstothepolicethebuttonestablishmentIncludingguardsagainstinfrontofsmokestairhallinviewofvariousfloorsfrontroominfrontofroom,fireelevatorroom,fireelevatorwithguardsagainstwhichsmokestairhalltocomeinhandythefrontroomishaswhenthefirethepersonneltodispersewhichsavesgoalwithfireprevention,shouldreporttothepolicethebuttonfirstchoicespotastheestablishmentmanualfire.Inaddition,theroomalsoshouldestablishthemanualfiretothecommonelevatorinfrontoftoreporttothepolicethebutton.Inthepublicactiveplaceincludinghall,hall,diningroom,multipurposehallandsoonandthemainthoroughfareandsoonplace,thepersonnelveryisallcentralized,andmainlydispersesthechannel.ThereforeshouldreporttothepolicethebuttoninthesepublicactiveplacesmainaccessestablishmentmanualfiresThemanualfireestablisheswhichinthemainthoroughfarereportstothepolicethebuttontoguaranteetoamanualfirewhichmostisclosetoreportstothepolicethebuttondistancefromafireprotectiondistrictanypositionnottobesupposedtobebiggerthan30meters.3rd,thefireemergencybroadcaststhespeakertheestablishmentTheaisle,thehall,thediningroomandsoonthepublicplacepersonnelveryareallcentralized,andmainlydispersesthechannel.Thereforeshouldpressinthesepublicplacestoarecentspeakerdistanceisnotbiggerthan25metersfromafireprotectiondistrictanyspotandintheaislelastshouldnotbebiggerthan12.5metersthespeakertotheaisleterminaldistancetheestablishmentfireemergencytobroadcastthespeakerNextalsoshouldestablishthefireinthepublicbathroomplaceemergencytobroadcastthespeaker.Thefirstroomincludingguardsagainstinfrontofsmokestairhallinfrontofroom,fireelevatorroom,fireelevatorwithguardsagainstwhichsmokestairhalltocomeinhandythefrontroomishaswhenthefirethepersonneltodispersewhichsavesgoalwithfireprevention,alsohasthefiredoorseparationandthesoundsofpeopleisconfusedandnoisy,thereforeshouldestablishthefireemergencytobroadcastthespeaker.Infrontofthecommonelevatortheroomalsoshouldestablishthefireemergencytobroadcastthespeaker.Dispersesthestairhallalsoishaswhenthefirethepersonneltodispersewhichsavesgoalwiththefireprevention,alsothesoundsofpeopleareconfusedandnoisy,thereforeshouldestablishthefireemergencytobroadcastthespeaker,byfavorsthefireemergencybroadcasttodispersetheinstruction.4th,firealarminstallmentestablishmentTheestablishmentfireemergencybroadcastfireautoalarmsystem,theauthorthoughtalsoshouldinstallthefirealarminstallment,butitscontrolprocedureshouldbeThealarmapparatusshouldconfirmafterthefire,usesmanualortheautomaticcontrolmodeunificationtothefirecorrelationregiontransmissionwarning,stopsthealarmapparatusworkinthestipulationtime,therapidlinkagefireemergencybroadcastandbroadcaststothepeopledispersestheinstruction.Thefirealarminstallmentestablishmentposition,theauthorthoughtshouldreporttothepolicethebuttonpositionwiththemanualfiretobesame,itswallsurfaceinstallmentshouldforbeapartfromtheground1.8metershighly5th,firespecialusetelephoneestablishmentInstallsthefirespecialusetelephoneextensiontelephone,shouldbelocatedtheengineroomwhichrelatedalsosomepeopleisondutyfrequentlywiththefirelinkagecontrolincludingfirewaterplant,spareelectricitygenerationengineroom,matchessubstation,mainlyventilateswithairconditioningengineroom,dischargesfumeengineroom,firepreventionelevatormachineroomandother,thefirefightingcontrolsystemoperatestheequipmentplaceorthecontrolroom,thefiredutyofficersobservationroom,thesecuritymanagesspotandsoonpublicroom.Sedanoftheaterboxthefireelevatorandintheordinaryelevatorallshouldsupposethespecialusetelephone,requeststheelevatormachineroomandtheelevatorsedantheaterbox,theelevatormachineroomandthefirecontrolroom,theelevatorsedantheaterboxandthefirecontrolroomandsoonthreecompositionsisreliabletospeaksthecorrespondencetelephonesystem.UsuallyinfirecontrolroomTheestablishmentelevatormonitoringdemonstrationplateincludingpositionindicator,directionindicatinglamp,tospeakscorrespondencetelephone,troublelampandsoon,inordertocarriesonthenecessitytotheelevatorrunningstatuswhichinthesurveillanceandtheemergencycasecontrols.Isequippedwiththemanualfiretoreporttothepolicepositionandsoonbutton,firehydrantbuttonalsoshouldinstallthefirespecialusetelephonereceptacle.Third,firelinkagecontrol1st,thefirelinkagecontrolshouldincludethecontrolfirepumptoopen,tostop,alsoshoulddemonstrateopenspumpsthebuttonthepositionandthefirepumpworkandthemalfunction.Whenthefirehydrantisequippedwiththefirehydrantbutton,itselectricinstallationworkspotalsoshoulddemonstratethefirepumptheworkingmodeactivestatusnamelyestablishmentfirepumpworkindicatinglamp.2nd,thefirelinkagecontrolshouldincludethecontrolsprayingofwaterandthewateratomizationfirefightingsystemopens,stops,alsoshoulddemonstratethefirepumptheworkandthemalfunctionandthefluentdisplay,reportstothepolicethevalve,thesafetysignalvalveworkingmodeactivestatus.Inaddition,tothebasin,thewatertankwaterlevelalsoshouldcarryonthedemonstrationmonitorInordertopreventtheoverhaulsignalvalveisshutdown,theauthorthoughtshouldusethebeltelectricsignalthecontrolsignalvalvebytodemonstrateitopensthecondition.3rd,thefirelinkagecontrolothercontrolsandthedemonstrationfunction,shouldcarryoutthepresentnationalrelatedstandardandthestandardspecificstipulation.Fourth,fireautoalarmsystemwiringInordertopreventthefireoccurswhenthefirecontrol,thecorrespondenceandthewarninglineseverance,causesthefirefightingworktobeunabletocarryon,createsthebiggereconomiclossAlsoforthesuppressioninterferenceforexampletransformer,electricmotor,electriccableandsoontheinfluencewhichproducestothefireautoalarmsystem.Thefireautoalarmsystemtransmissionlineandthefirecontrol,thecorrespondenceandthewarninglineshouldusethebeingflameresistantelectriccable,andshouldusethemetaltubeortheenclosedmetaltrunkingprotection.Thefiremanualpositivegoverninginstallmentlineshouldusethefireproofelectriccable,itselectriccablealsoshouldusethemetaltubeortheenclosedmetaltrunkingprotection.UsesMing,shouldtakesthefireprotectionprotectivemeasuresonthemetaltubeortheenclosedmetaltrunking.Fifth,concludingremarkTheauthorrestsontheconcreteprojecttoimplementtheexperience,elaboratedthedesignbasis,fireautoalarmdesignactualproblemandsoonsystemequipmentestablishment,firelinkagecontrolanditswiringpullsoutsomeshallowopinions,itsgoalisenhancesthefireautoalarmsystemthedesignquality,discoveredearlyandthenotificationfire,preventedandreducesthefiretoharm,byprotectsthepersonandthepropertysafety.UltrasonicCleaningUltrasoniccleaningisagoodfitforawiderangeofapplications,fromremovingswarfandgrindingandpolishingresiduetotreatingpartscoveredinoil,grease,orlayersofpaint.Ultrasonicscanbeusedtocleanminiaturewatchpartsortosupporttheoverhaulofjumbojetengines.Andfromanindustryperspective,thefieldsofelectrotechnics,precisionmechanicsandlightengineering,optics,metalprocessing,andmedicalequipmenthaveprovenparticularlyreceptivetotheultrasonicconcept.Sotheimpactofultrasoniccleaningisclearlyrecognizable.Buttotrulyunderstandthevalueofultrasonics,onemustunderstandhowultrasoniccleanersreallywork.UltrasonicCleaningExplainedThecleansingeffectofultrasoundistheproductofaphenomenoncalledcavitation.Billionsofminutegasbubblesimplode,causingshockwavesthatunderminedirtandblastitoffapartssurface.Oneofthekeyadvantagesofthisprocessisthatitallowsuserstocleanpartsurfacesthatarecompletelyinaccessibletoamanualcleaningprocess.Ultrasoundfrequenciesgenerallyrangebetween20kilohertzand50kilohertz,dependingonapplicationrequirements.Ultrasoniccleaningistypicallyperformedattemperaturesbetween122Fand176F.Inanultrasoniccleaningsystem,cavitationisproducedbyintroducingsoundwavesintoacleaningliquidbymeansofaseriesoftransducersmountedtoacleaningtank.Thesoundtravelsthroughoutthetankandcreateswavesofcompressionandexpansionintheliquid.Inthecompressionwave,themoleculesofthecleaningliquidarecompressedtogethertightly.Conversely,intheexpansionwave,themoleculesarepulledapartrapidly.Theexpansionissodramaticthatthemoleculesarerippedapart,creatingmicroscopicbubbles.Thebubblescontainapartialvacuum.Asthepressurearoundthebubblesbecomesgreater,surroundingfluidrushesinandcollapsesthebubble.Whenthisoccurs,ajetofliquidiscreated,resultingintemperaturesashighas9,032Froughlythetemperatureofthesurfaceofthesun.Theextremetemperature,combinedwiththeliquidjetsvelocity,providesaveryintensecleaningaction.However,becausethebubbleexpansionandcollapsecycleissoshort,theliquidsurroundingthebubblequicklyabsorbstheheat,preventingthetankandcleaningliquidfrombecomingoverlyhotduringthecleaningprocess.SecretstoUltrasonicSuccessTherearesevenmajorconcernsrelatedtosuccessfulultrasoniccleaning1.Time2.Temperature3.Chemistry4.PartFixtureDesign5.UltrasonicOutputFrequency6.WattsPerGallon7.LoadingTimeCleaningtimescanvarytremendouslyinanultrasonicprocess,dependinglargelyonhowdirtythepartisandhowcleanisclean.Anormaltrialperiodistwoto10minutes,sinceveryfewpartsaresufficientlycleaninashorterperiodoftime.Precleaningmayberequiredtoremovegrosscontaminationortochemicallypreparethepartsforafinalclean.Someapplicationsrequiremorethanoneultrasonictreatmenttocompletetherequiredcleaning.Ultrasonicrinsingmayalsoberequiredinsomecasestomorethoroughlyremovewashchemicals.TemperatureChemistryTemperatureandchemistryarecloselyrelated.Generally,ultrasoniccleaninginanaqueoussolutionisoptimizedat140F.SomehighpHsolutionsrequirehighertemperatures.ThechemicalpHisagoodplacetostartbutathoroughexaminationofchemistryisbeyondthescopeofthisarticle.Inbrief,thefollowingshouldbeconsideredthemaincomponentsofaqueousultrasoniccleaningchemistryA.Waterhard,soft,DI,ordistilledB.pHC.SurfactantsWettingagents

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