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语音学复习资料IMULTIPLECHOICEC1______ISTHESCIENCEOFSPEECHSOUNDSAPHONEBPHONEMECPHONETICSDPHONOLOGYB2INPRODUCINGALLVOWELSTHEREISVIBRATIONOFTHEVOCALCORDS,SOALLVOWELSARE______AVOICELESSBVOICEDCFRONTDLONGC3______CONSONANTSOUNDSAREMADEWITHTHELIPSCLOSEDAFRICATIVEBLATERALCBILABIALDDENTALB4THEENDING–SIN“GAMES”SHOULDBEPRONOUNCED______A/S/B/Z/C/IZ/D/ZI/B5IN______ASSIMILATIONTHEASSIMILATEDSOUNDISINFLUENCEDBYTHEPRECEDINGSOUNDAREGRESSIVEBPROGRESSIVECDOUBLEDRECIPROCALB6______MEANSTHEOMISSIONOFASOUNDORSOUNDS,EITHERWITHINTHEBODYOFAWORDORATAJUNCTIONOFWORDSAASSIMILATIONBELISIONCLINKINGDLIAISONC7THE______OFASOUNDISTHELENGTHOFTIMEDURINGWHICHITISHELDONCONTINUOUSLYINAGIVENWORDONPHRASEAVOICEBSPELLINGCLENGTHDFORMA8______ISCONCERNEDWITHTHESTRESSINGOFINDIVIDUALWORDSOFTWOORMORESYLLABLESWHENTHEYAREPRONOUNCEDINISOLATIONAWORDSTRESSBSENTENCESTRESSCINTONATIONDTONED9ARHYTHMUNITISFORMEDBYASTRESSED______,TOGETHERWITHUNSTRESSEDSYLLABLESWHICHMAYCOMEBEFORETHESTRESSANDAFTERITAVOWELBCONSONANTCSOUNDDSYLLABLEB10THESEGROUPSOFWORDSWHICHARECLOSELYCONNECTEDINMEANINGANDINGRAMMARARECALLED______ASOUNDLINKINGBSENSEGROUPSCPAUSINGDRHYTHMD11THESTRESSEDSYLLABLEOFTHELASTPROMINENTWORDISAMARKEROFTHEHIGHESTIMPORTANCE,ANDITISCALLEDTHE______OFTHETUNEATAILBPREHEADCHEADDNUCLEUSB12A______REPRESENTSASTRESSEDSYLLABLEPRONOUNCEDWITHAFALLINPITCHWITHINTHATSYLLABLEADASHBDOWNWARDCURVECUPWARDCUREDDOTA13INUNEMPHATICENGLISHSPEECHTHE______STRESSEDSYLLABLEINASENTENCEISUSUALLYPRONOUNCEDONTHEHIGHESTPITCHAFIRSTBSECONDCTHIRDDFOURTHB14THE______TONEEXPRESS“CERTAINTY”OR“COMPLETENESS”ARISINGBFALLINGCFALLINGRISINGDRISINGFALLINGC15AUXILIARYANDMODALVERBSARESTRESSED______OFASENTENCEAINTHEMIDDLEBATTHEENDCATTHEBEGINNINGDATANYPOSITIONA16______COVERSTHEARTICULATION,CLASSIFICATIONANDCOMBINATIONOFTHEENGLISHSPEECHSOUNDSAPHONETICSBPHONOLOGYCPHONEDPHONEMEC17STANDARDENGLISHISTHESORTOFENGLISHBASEDONTHE______DIALECTANEWYORKBCAMBRIDGECLONDONDWASHINGTOND18THEMODERNPHONETICTRANSCRIPTIONTHATISMOSTWIDELYUSEDNOWISTHE______ANARROWTRANSCRIPTIONBBROADTRANSCRIPTIONCSYMBOLSDINTERNATIONALPHONETICALPHABETD19/M/ISANASALACCORDINGTO______ATHETENSENESSBPLACEOFARTICULATIONCWORKOFTHEVOCALCORDSDMANNEROFARTICULATIONB20THEENDING–EDIN“PLANNED”ISPRONOUNCED______A/T/B/D/C/ID/D/IT/A21INPRODUCING______THEOBSTRUCTIONISFORMEDINTHEGLOTTIS,BETWEENTHETWOVOCALCORDSAGLOTTALBVELARCLATERALDSEMIVOWELB22INPRODUCING______THEOBSTRUCTIONISFORMEDBETWEENTHETIPOFTHETONGUEANDTHEUPPERFRONTTEETHALABIODENTALBDENTALCALVEOLARDVELARB23THEENDING–SIN“GAMES”SHOULDBEPRONOUNCED______A/S/B/Z/C/IZ/D/ZI/B24THEORGANSOFSPEECH,SUCHASTHETEETHRIDGE,THEPALATEAREIN______CAVITYANASALBMOUTHCTONGUEDPHARYNXA25IFTHREECONSONANTSSHOULDCLUSTERTOGETHERATTHEBEGINNINGOFAWORD,THEFIRSTMUSTBE______A/S/B/P/C/B/D/W/D26______ISCONCERNEDWITHTHESOUNDSYSTEMOFLANGUAGE,ITSTUDIESTHEFUNCTIONINGOFTHESPEECHSOUNDSAPHONEBPHONEMECPHONETICSDPHONOLOGYC27______SOUNDSINENGLISHAREMADEWITHTHESOFTPLATELOWEREDASTOPBNASALCVELARDLATERALC28______CONSONANTSOUNDSAREMADEWITHTHELIPSCLOSEDAFRICATIVEBLATERALCBILABIALDDENTALD29ARHYTHMUNITISFORMEDBYASTRESSED______,TOGETHERWITHUNSTRESSEDSYLLABLESWHICHMAYCOMEBEFORETHESTRESSANDAFTERITAVOWELBCONSONANTCSOUNDDSYLLABLEB30THESEGROUPSOFWORDSWHICHARECLOSELYCONNECTEDINMEANINGANDINGRAMMARARECALLED______ASOUNDLINKINGBSENSEGROUPSCPAUSINGDRHYTHMD31THESTRESSEDSYLLABLEOFTHELASTPROMINENTWORDISAMARKEROFTHEHIGHESTIMPORTANCE,ANDITISCALLEDTHE______OFTHETUNEATAILBPREHEADCHEADNUCLEUSB32A______REPRESENTSASTRESSEDSYLLABLEPRONOUNCEDWITHAFALLINPITCHWITHINTHATSYLLABLEADASHBDOWNWARDCURVECUPWARDCUREDDOTA33INUNEMPHATICENGLISHSPEECHTHE______STRESSEDSYLLABLEINASENTENCEISUSUALLYPRONOUNCEDONTHEHIGHESTPITCHAFIRSTBSECONDCTHIRDDFOURTHB34THE______TONEEXPRESS“CERTAINTY”OR“COMPLETENESS”ARISINGBFALLINGCFALLINGRISINGDRISINGFALLINGC35______ISTHESCIENCEOFSPEECHSOUNDSAPHONEBPHONEMECPHONETICSDPHONOLOGYA36______COVERSTHEARTICULATION,CLASSIFICATIONANDCOMBINATIONOFTHEENGLISHSPEECHSOUNDSAPHONETICSBPHONOLOGYCPHONEDPHONEMEC37STANDARDENGLISHISTHESORTOFENGLISHBASEDONTHE______DIALECTANEWYORKBCAMBRIDGECLONDONDWASHINGTOND38THEMODERNPHONETICTRANSCRIPTIONTHATISMOSTWIDELYUSEDNOWISTHE______ANARROWTRANSCRIPTIONBBROADTRANSCRIPTIONCSYMBOLSDINTERNATIONALPHONETICALPHABETD39/M/ISANASALACCORDINGTO______ATHETENSENESSBPLACEOFARTICULATIONCWORKOFTHEVOCALCORDSDMANNEROFARTICULATIONA40THEENDING–EDIN“HELPED”ISPRONOUNCED______A/T/B/D/C/ID/D/IT/A41INPRODUCING______THEOBSTRUCTIONISFORMEDINTHEGLOTTIS,BETWEENTHETWOVOCALCORDSAGLOTTALBVELARCLATERALDSEMIVOWELB42INPRODUCING______THEOBSTRUCTIONISFORMEDBETWEENTHETIPOFTHETONGUEANDTHEUPPERFRONTTEETHALABIODENTALBDENTALCALVEOLARDVELARC43THEENDING–SIN“CHANGES”SHOULDBEPRONOUNCED______A/S/B/Z/C/IZ/D/ZI/B44THEORGANSOFSPEECH,SUCHASTHETEETHRIDGE,THEPALATEAREIN______CAVITYANASALBMOUTHCTONGUEDPHARYNXA45IFTHREECONSONANTSSHOULDCLUSTERTOGETHERATTHEBEGINNINGOFAWORD,THEFIRSTMUSTBE______A/S/B/P/C/B/D/W/D46______ISCONCERNEDWITHTHESOUNDSYSTEMOFLANGUAGE,ITSTUDIESTHEFUNCTIONINGOFTHESPEECHSOUNDSAPHONEBPHONEMECPHONETICSDPHONOLOGYC47______SOUNDSINENGLISHAREMADEWITHTHESOFTPLATELOWEREDASTOPBNASALCVELARDLATERALC48______CONSONANTSOUNDSAREMADEWITHTHELIPSCLOSEDAFRICATIVEBLATERALCBILABIALDDENTALD49ARHYTHMUNITISFORMEDBYASTRESSED______,TOGETHERWITHUNSTRESSEDSYLLABLESWHICHMAYCOMEBEFORETHESTRESSANDAFTERITAVOWELBCONSONANTCSOUNDDSYLLABLEB50THESEGROUPSOFWORDSWHICHARECLOSELYCONNECTEDINMEANINGANDINGRAMMARARECALLED______ASOUNDLINKINGBSENSEGROUPSCPAUSINGDRHYTHMD51THESTRESSEDSYLLABLEOFTHELASTPROMINENTWORDISAMARKEROFTHEHIGHESTIMPORTANCE,ANDITISCALLEDTHE______OFTHETUNEATAILBPREHEADCHEADDNUCLEUSA52A______REPRESENTSASTRESSEDSYLLABLEPRONOUNCEDWITHAFALLINPITCHWITHINTHATSYLLABLEADASHBDOWNWARDCURVECUPWARDCUREDDOTA53INUNEMPHATICENGLISHSPEECHTHE______STRESSEDSYLLABLEINASENTENCEISUSUALLYPRONOUNCEDONTHEHIGHESTPITCHAFIRSTBSECONDCTHIRDDFOURTHB54THE______TONEEXPRESS“CERTAINTY”OR“COMPLETENESS”ARISINGBFALLINGCFALLINGRISINGDRISINGFALLINGC55______ISTHESCIENCEOFSPEECHSOUNDSAPHONEBPHONEMECPHONETICSDPHONOLOGYA56______COVERSTHEARTICULATION,CLASSIFICATIONANDCOMBINATIONOFTHEENGLISHSPEECHSOUNDSAPHONETICSBPHONOLOGYCPHONEDPHONEMEC57STANDARDENGLISHISTHESORTOFENGLISHBASEDONTHE______DIALECTANEWYORKBCAMBRIDGECLONDONDWASHINGTOND58THEMODERNPHONETICTRANSCRIPTIONTHATISMOSTWIDELYUSEDNOWISTHE______ANARROWTRANSCRIPTIONBBROADTRANSCRIPTIONCSYMBOLSDINTERNATIONALPHONETICALPHABETD59/M/ISANASALACCORDINGTO______ATHETENSENESSBPLACEOFARTICULATIONCWORKOFTHEVOCALCORDSDMANNEROFARTICULATIONC60THEENDING–EDIN“PROTECTED”ISPRONOUNCED______A/T/B/D/C/ID/D/IT/IICHOOSETHESUITABLEANSWERS1ALANGUAGECONSISTSOFTHEIMPORTANTELEMENTS,NAMELYASPEECHSOUNDSBVOCABULARYCGRAMMARDSIGNSESYMBOLS2INENGLISHPRONUNCIATIONTHEVOCALCORDSAREDRAWNNEARTOGETHERANDVIBRATEWHENWEPRONOUNCEAVOWELSBVOICELESSCONSONANTSCVOICEDCONSONANTSDTHELARYNXETHETIPOFTHETONGUE3ACCORDINGTOTHEMANNEROFARTICULATIONOFCONSONANTWEMAYDISTINGUISHAPLOSIVESBFRICATIVESCAFFRICATESDNASALSESEMIVOWELS4INENGLISHAWEAKFORMOFAWORDISGENERALLYDISTINGUISHEDFROMASTRONGFORMBYATHEDIFFERENCEINVOWELSOUNDSBTHEABSENCEOFASOUNDCTHEDIFFERENCEINTHELENGTHOFAVOWELDTHEABBREVIATEDFORMOFAWORDETHEWORDACCENT5INENGLISHINTONATIONTHENUCLEUSHASDIFFERENTTONESTHEMOSTIMPORTANTTONESAREATHEFALLINGTONEBTHERISINGTONECTHEFALLINGRISINGTONEDTHERISINGFALLINGTONEETHERISINGFALLINGRISINGTONE6ASAMEANSOFCOMMUNICATIONBYWORDOFMOUTH,LANGUAGEISUSEDAINORALSPEECHBINWRITTENLANGUAGECINLISTENINGDINREADINGALOUDEINBODYLANGUAGE7THEVOICELESSCONSONANTSAREUSUALLYAASPIRATEDBSTRONGCLONGDDEEPEDESCRIPTIVE8THEENGLISHPUREVOWELSMONOPHTHONGSARECLASSIFIEDACCORDINGTHEPRINCIPLESOFATHEHEIGHTOFTHERAISEDPARTOFTHETONGUEBTHEPARTOFTHETONGUERAISEDCTHELENGTHOFTHEVOWELDTHEPOSITIONORSHAPEOFTHELIPSETHEDEGREEOFTENSENESS9INENGLISHPRONUNCIATIONELISIONISDIVIDEDINTOAHISTORICALELISIONBCONTEXTUALELISIONCLINEARELISIONDMICROELISIONEMACROELISION10MAINTONEPATTERNSOFAMERICANSPEECHAREATHEFALLINGTONEBHALFFALLINGTONECTHERISINGTONEDTHEFALLINGRISINGTONEETHERISINGFALLINGTONE11INORDERTOSTUDYSPEECHSOUNDS,ITISNECESSARYTOKNOWANDLEARNTHEORGANSOFSPEECHANDTHEIRFUNCTIONS,ASATHETEETHBTHELIPSCTHETONGUEDTHEMOUTHCAVITYANDTHENASALCAVITYETHEVISION12ACCORDINGTOTHEPLACEOFARTICULATIONOFCONSONANTWEMAYDISTINGUISHABILABIALBLABIODENTALCDENTALDALVEOLAREPALATAL13THEENGLISHPUREVOWELSMONOPHTHONGSARECLASSIFIEDACCORDINGTHEPRINCIPLESOFATHEHEIGHTOFTHERAISEDPARTOFTHETONGUEBTHEPARTOFTHETONGUERAISEDCTHELENGTHOFTHEVOWELDTHEPOSITIONORSHAPEOFTHELIPSETHEDEGREEOFTENSENESS14THEALTERNATIONOFSTRESSEDANDUNSTRESSEDSYLLABLESRESULTSINTHEINFLUENCEOFRHYTHMUPONAWORDSTRESSBSENTENCESTRESSCKEYWORDSDRHYTHMICGROUPETHETEMPOOFSPEECH15INTHECASEOFTHESOUNDF,OCCURINITIALLYIN“FEEL”,THEFOLLOWINGANSWERSWOULDBEGIVENAVOICELESSBLABIODENTALCFRICATIVEDASPIRATEDESTRONGANDLONG答案11232133123454123512361471238123459121012341112341212345131234514121512345IIIEXPLAINTHEFOLLOWINGTERMS1ASSIMILATION2RHYTHM3IPA4WORDSTRESS5HEAD6LIAISON7INCOMPLETEPLOSION8SENTENCESTRESS9TAIL10ELISION11INTONATION12PREHEAD答案1INCONNECTEDSPEECH,SOUNDS,UNDERTHEINFLUENCEOFTHEIRNEIGHBORS,AREREPLACEDBYOTHERSOUNDSSOMETIMESTWONEIGHBORINGSOUNDSINFLUENCEEACHOTHERANDAREREPLACEDBYATHIRDSOUNDWHICHISDIFFERENTFROMBOTHTHEORIGINALSOUNDSTHISPROCESSISCALLEDASSIMILATION2RHYTHMINENGLISHSPEECHISBASEDONSTRESSARHYTHMUNITISFORMEDBYASTRESSEDSYLLABLE,TOGETHERWITHUNSTRESSEDSYLLABLESWHICHMAYCOMEBEFORETHESTRESSANDAFTERIT3THEMODERNPHONETICTRANSCRIPTIONTHATISMOSTWIDELYUSEDNOWISTHEINTERNATIONALPHONETICALPHABETTHECHARACTERISTICOFTHISTRANSCRIPTIONISTHATEACHSYMBOLMUSTALWAYSREPRESENTONESOUNDANDNEVERANYOTHER,ANDONESOUNDMUSTBEREPRESENTEDBYONLYONESYMBOL4.WORDSTRESSISCONCERNEDWITHTHESTRESSINGOFINDIVIDUALWORDSOFTWOORMORESYLLABLESWHENTHEYAREPRONOUNCEDINISOLATION5THEHEADBEGINSWITHTHESTRESSEDSYLLABLEOFTHEFIRSTPROMINENTWORDBEFORETHENUCLEUSANDENDSWITHTHESYLLABLEIMMEDIATELYPRECEDINGTHENUCLEUS6IFWEWANTTOSPEAKENGLISHFLUENTLY,WEMUSTTRYTOAVOIDPRONOUNCINGEACHWORDASIFITWEREISOLATEDWEMUSTTRYTOLINKWORDSTOGETHERSMOOTHLYANDNATURALLY7WHENAPLOSIVECONSONANTISIMMEDIATELYFOLLOWEDBYANOTHERPLOSIVE,ONLYTHESECONDPLOSIVEISFULLYEXPLODED,BUTTHECLOSUREISHELDFORDOUBLETHEUSUALTIME8SOMEWORDSLOSETHEIRSTRESSES,ESPECIALLYWHENWETALKQUICKLY,OTHERWORDSKEEPTHEIRSTRESSESANDTHESESTRESSEDSYLLABLESFORMWHATISCALLEDSENTENCESTRESS9ALLSYLLABLESFOLLOWINGTHENUCLEUSA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