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一、语法和词汇1、被动语态①WESHALLPUTOFFTHEMEETINGTILLFRIDAYTHEMEETINGWILLBEPUTOFFTILLFRIDAY②NOTUNTIL1989WASHESETFREE③I’MGLADTOBEALLOWEDTOVISITYOURSCHOOL④HEWASROBBEDOFWALLETLASTNIGHT2、形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的变化规则、不规则变化①程度相等HEISASBUSYASBEFORE②程度不相等ITISNOTSOASCOLDTODAYASYESTERDAY③许多FAR,ALOT,AGREATDEAL,ALITTLE,ABIT,MUCH④越越THEMORE,THEBETTER⑤最高级THEYANGTZEISTHELONGESTRIVERINCHINA3、介词①AT表示某一时间点,地点(小)ARRIVEATAIRPORT②IN表示某一时间段,地点(大)ARRIVEINHK③ON表示某一天,星期几,在之上,ARRIVEONFRIDAY④BETWEEN(两个之间)与AMONG(三个以上之间)⑤FOR所朝向的目标,LEAVEFORHK(去香港)⑥FROMTO,从到,FROM9AMTO5PM⑦BY后面不加冠词/完成时的标志,BYAIR,BYBUSBYTHETIMEIGOTTHERE,THEFILMHADALREADYBEGUNIHAVEBEENTEACHINGFOR10YEARS/SINCE19904、情态公司①CANTWOEYESCANSEEMORETHANONETHEYCANNOTHAVEGONEOUTBECAUSETHELIGHT’SONYOUCANGONOW②MAYMAYIASKYOUAQUESTION/HEMAYHAVESEENTHEMOVIE③MUSTWEMUSTLEAVENOW/SHEMUSTHAVEMADEAMISTAKE④OUHTYOUOUGHTTOTAKEHISADVICEWHENIGOTTHERE,THEFILMHADALREADYBEGUN,IOUGHTTOHAVEGOTTHEREEARLIER⑤NEEDYOUNEEDN’TTELLHIM⑥DAREHOWDARETHEYDOSUCHATHING⑦SHOULDHESHOULDLEARNHOWTODRIVE/HESHOULDHAVEBEENTHEREEARLIER5、定语似句①关系代词WHICH,WHO,WHOM,WHOSE,THAT的用法②关系副词WHEN,WHY,HOWTHATISTHEREASONWHYIAMNOTTAKINGYOURADVICE③介词WHICH/WHOM仅有的两个THEGIRLTOWHOMYOUSPEAKISMYSISTER④非限制性定语从句IHAVETHREETYPESOFPENSINMYBOX,EACHOFTHEMWRITESSMOOTHLY6、倒装句①否定词在句首NOTUNTILHETOLDMETHENEWS,DIDIKNOWHEWASKILLEDLASTNIGHT②ONLY在句首ONLYAFTERCLASSWASHEALLOWEDTOGO③SO,NOR,NEITHER在句首THEFIRSTONEWASN’TGOODENOUGHANDNEITHERWASTHESECOND④虚拟语气中HADTHEYNOTWORKINGSOHARD,THEYWOULDN’THAVESUCCEEDEDHADWEMADEUPOURMIND,WEMIGHTHAVESUCCEEDEDIFIWEREYOU,IWOULDCONSIDERIT7、虚拟语气表示建议、命令、重要性等句子中使用,如SUGGEST/INSIST/ORDER/PROPOSE/REQUIRESHOULD动词原形,SHOULD常被省略,这些词的名词、形容词形式也一样,如THEYSUGGESTTHATHENOTSMOKEHERETHEIRSUGGESTIONWASWEALLJOINTHEPARTYIT’SIMPORTANTTHATWEDOIT8、强调句ITIS/WAS(仅此两种)THAT/WHO(人)/WHICH(有时)9、AS的用法(下册P2126)10、一致原则、就近原则(下册P7375)11、虚所语气(续)(下册P233P236)二、英汉互译1、我们拥有大量的自然资源WEHAVEPLENTYOFNATURALRESOURCES2、PARENTS,TEACHERSINSCHOOLS,WORKASSOCIATESANDCOMMUNICATORSINORUSINGTHEMASSMEDIAAREALLCAPABLEOFAROUSINGOURPOTENTIALINTERESTSFOREXAMPLE,THEDEGREETOWHICHANDTHEWAYSINWHICHASCHOOLENCOURAGESPARTICIPATIONINGAMES,SPORTSANDCULTURALPURSUITSARELIKELYTOCONTRIBUTETOTHESHAPINGOFLEISUREATTITUDESONTHEPARTOFTHESTUDENTSSCHOOLSUSUALLYSETASTHEIREDUCATIONALOBJECTIVETHEATTAINMENTOFABALANCEDDEVELOPMENTOFTHEPORSONTHEJORESERIOUSLYTHISISSOUGHT,THEMORELIKELYPOSITIVEATTITUDETOWARDSLEISUREASWELLASACADEMICWORDWILLBEENCOURAGEDP1623、他在纠正学生错误时总是采取积极的态度HEALWAYSTAKESPOSITIVEATTITUDETOCORRECTTHESTUDENTS’MISTAKES4、他的肤色与他是否是个律师无关HISCOLOROFSKINISNOTRELEVANTTOWHETHERHISISAGOODLAWYERORNOT5、SOMECONCENTRATEDSTUDYEACHDAYISBETTERTHANMANYSTUDYHOURSONEDAYANDNOTHINGTHENEXTASYOUWORKOUTYOURINDIVIDUALSCHEDULE,ATTEMPTTOINCLUDEAMINIMUMOFTWOSTUDYHOURSEVERYDAYTHISWILLNOTONLYKEEPTHESTUDYHABITALIVEBUTALSOKEEPYOUUPTODATEONYOURCLASSASSIGNMENTSANDPROJECTSP1756、他同现代生活不合板。HEISOUTOFSTEPWITMODERNLIFE7、SELFDSTEEMISWHATPEOPLETHINKABOUTTHEMSELVESWHETHERORNOTTHEYFEELVALUEDANDWHENFAMILYMEMBERSHAVESELFRESPECT,PRIDE,ANDBELIEFINTHEMSELVES,THISHIGHSELFESTEEMMAKESITPOSSIBLETOTOPEWITHTHEEVERYDAYPROBLEMSOFGROWINGUPP2258、每个人都应关心自己国家的未来。EVERYBODYSHOULDBECONCERNEDABOUTTHEFUTUREOFHISOWNCOUNTRY9、WHATWEDREAMAT,NIGHTISN’TASIMPORTANTTOHOWWEFEELINTHEMORNINGASTHENUMBEROFPEOPLEWHOAPPEARINOURDREAMSTHEMOREPEOPLE,THEBETTERWEFEELOURSLEEPINFLUENCESOURMOODOURMOOD,INTURN,AFFECTSOURPERFORMANCEANDTHROUGHOUTTHEDAY,OURLEVELSOFMOODANDPERFORMANCEREMAINCOSELYLINKEDP30810、广义上说,任何人做的工作都对社会有益。INABROADSENSE,THEWORKTHATANYONEDOESISOFSOCIALVALUE11、在商业社会里信息对每个人都有用。INFORMATIONISOFGREATVALUETOEVERYONEINTHEBUSINESSWORLD12、门被档住了,有什么东西档在那儿。THEDOORWASBLOCKED,THEREWASSOMETHINGINTHEWAY13、他们昨天来看你时,你在干什么WHATWEREYOUDOINGWHENTHEYCAMETOSEEYOUYESTERDAY14、他通过努力工作赢得了许多人的尊敬。HEEARNEDMANYPEOPLERESPECTBYWORKINGHARD15、没有你的帮助,我们举取是如此巨大的成功。WITHOUTYOURHELP,WEWOULDN’THAVESOGREATASUCCESS三、其他练习1、IWOULDRATHERSTAYATHOMETHANGOOUT2、ONESELFEDUCATION3、IGOUPSTAIRSINSTEADOFTAKINGTHELIFE4、ICOULDN’THELPLAUGHING5、ISPEND10YUANONTHEBOOD6、SPENDSOMETIME/HAVETROUBLE/BEBUSYINDOINGSTH7、APPLYFOR申请APPLICATION,申请表格APPLYTO应用APPLICANT申请人8、IREMEMBERBEINGPAID我记得已经收了钱。9、IREMEMBERTOPAY我记得要去给钱的。(但并未给)READINGCOMPREHENSION阅读理解PASSAGE1MEALSSHOULDBEASORTOFTREAT,NOTANUTRITIONAL营养的TREATMENT,FORYOURCHILDFORNOW,STOPBEINGANAMATEURNUTRITIONISTGIVEHERTHESORTOFFOODSHEREALLYENJOYSANDGIVEHERONLYVERYSMALLPORTIONSDON’TSCOLDHERIFSHEDOESN’TEATEVERYTHINGONHERPLATEIFSHE’SEATENEVERYTHINGANDWANTSMORE,GIVEHERONLYTINYADDITIONALPORTIONSNEVERINSISTTHATSHEEATSEVERYTHINGONHERPLATEREMAIN,TOTHEBESTOFYOURABILITY,CALM,UNCONCERNEDANDINDIFFERENTTOHERHABITOFSLOWLYPICKINGAWAYATHERFOODINSTEAD,ENJOYYOUROWNFOOD,ANDPAYNOATTENTIONTOHERTHEN,AFTERABOUT,SAY,30MINUTES,VERYCALMLYPICKUPALTHEPLATESANDOTHERCROCKERY(陶器)FROMTHETABLEMEALTIMEISOVERMAYBEYOURCHILDWILLCOMPLAINTHATSHEISN’TFINISHEDYETPAYHERNOHEEDBUTDOSAY,FOREXAMPLE;“THAT”STHEWAYIT’SGOTTOBEWECAN’TSTAYATTHETABLETOOLONGEATINGSORRY,IFYOU’RESTILLHUNGRY,YOU’LLJUSTHAVETOWAITUNTILLUNCHTIME,ORWHATEVERTHENEXTMEALIS31、ACCORDINGTOTHEPASSAGE,MEALSSHOULDBEASORTOFTREAT“TREAT”MEANSDABANQUETBMISMANAGECREFRESHMENTSDENJOYMENT32IFYOURCHILDDOESN’TEATEVERYTHINGONHERPLATE,DA4RINSISTTHATSHEEATSEVERYTHINGONHERPLATBGIVEHERONLYVERYSMALLPORTIONCGIVEHERTHESORTOFFOODSHEREALLYENJOYSDDON’TSCOLDDE33MEALTIMEISOVER,BUTSHEISN’TFINISHEDYET,ASHERMOTHER,YOUSHOULDDAENJOYYOUROWNFOODBPICKUPALLTHEPLATESCPAYNOATTENTIONTOHERDVERYCALMLYPICKUPTHEPLATESANDCROCKERY30MINUTESLATER34THEWORD“HEED”HEREMEANSDANEGLECTBCARECCAUTIONDATTENTION35THEPASSAGEMAINLYIMPLIESAALETTHECHILDENJOYHERFOODBGIVEEVERYTHINGTHECHILDWANTSCMEALSISANUTRITIONALTREATMENTDPAYATTENTIONTOTHECHILDREN’SFOODPASSAGE2INORDERTOLEANAFOREIGNLANGUAGEWELL,ITISNECESSARYTOOVERCOMETHEFEAROFMAKINGMISTAKESIFTHEPRIMARYGOALOFLANGUAGEUSEISCOMMUNICATION,THEMISTAKESARESECONDARYCONSIDERATIONSTHATMAYBEDEALTWITHGRADUALLYASAWARENESSOFTHOSEMISTAKESINCREASESONTHEOTHERHAND,STUDENTSSHOULDNOTIGNORETHEIRMISTAKESTHELANGUAGELEANERMAYOBSERVEHOWNATIVESPEAKERSEXPRESSTHEMSELVES,ANDHOWNATIVEEXPRESSIONSDIFFERFROMTHEWAYTHELEARNERMIGHTSAYTHEMFOREXAMPLE,ASPANISHSPEAKERWHOHASBEENSAYING“IDOIT”TOEXPRESSWILLINGNESSTODOSOMETHINGINTHEIMMEDIATEFUTURE,COULD,BY“INTERACTING”WITHNATIVESPEAKERSOFENGLISH,OBSERVETHATNATIVESPEAKERSACTUALLYSAY“I’LLDOIT”THERESULTINGDISCREPANCY分歧CARSERVEASABASISFORTHESTUDENTTOMODIFYHISWAYOFSINGTHEPRESENTTHENCEINENGLISHBUTASTUDENTWHOISUNWILLINGTOINTERACTINTHEFIRSTPLACEWOULDLOSETHISOPPORTUNITYTOLEARNBYTRIALANDERROR36ACCORDINGTOTHEPASSAGE,FOREIGNLANGUAGESTUDENTSSHOULDNOTWORRYTOOMUCHABOUTMAKINGMISTAKESBECAUSEAACOMMUNICATIONISTHEPRIMARYGOALOFLANGUAGELEARNINGBNATIVESPEAKERSWILLIGNORETHEIRMISTAKESCEVERYONEMAKESMISTAKESWHENTRYINGTOCOMMUNICATEINASTRANGELANGUAGEDNATIVESPEAKERSLIKEFOREIGNSTUDENTSWHOTRYTOLEANTHEIRLANGUAGE37ACCORDINGTOTHEPASSAGE,THEPRESENTTENSEINENGLISHISCAUSEDWITHSOMEVERBSBUTNOTWITHOTHERSTOEXPRESSFUTUREINTENTIONBBASICALLYTHESAMEASITISINSPANISHCNOTUSEDTOEXPRESSADESIRETODOSOMETHINGINTHEIMMEDIATEFUTUREDNOTTHEMOSTDIFFICULTPROBLEMFORFOREIGNSTUDENTS38THEAUTHORTHINKSTHATLANGUAGEREAMERSCANREDUCETHENUMBEROFTHEIRMISTAKESBYDAASKINGNATIVESPEAKERSFOREXPLANATIONBREADINGGOODBOOKSINTHEFOREIGNLANGUAGECSPEAKINGWITHOUTREGARDTONATIVESPEAKERSDCOMPARINGTHEIRSPEECHWITHWHATOFNATIVESPEAKERS39THEPASSAGEIMPLIESTHATFOREIGNLANGUAGESTUDENTSWHONOTINTERACTWITHNATIVESPEAKERSWILLNOTAALATKEADVANTAGEOFAVAILABLELANGUAGEMODELSBLEARNVERYMUCHABOUTTHEFOREIGNCULTURECLEARNABOUTTHEHISTORYOFTHEFOREIGNLANGUAGEDHOWTOWORRYABOUTMAKINGMISTAKES40THEAUTHOR’SMAJORCONCLUSIONABOUTTHEFUNCTIONOFMISTAKESINFOREIGNLANGUAGELEARNINGISTHATDAMISTAKESARENOTIMPORTANTINTHEPROCESSOFLEARNINGLANGUAGEBLEADERSAREOFTENVERYAFRAIDOFMAKINGMISTAKESCMISTAKESDONOTINTERFEREWITHCOMMUNICATIONDMAKINGMISTAKESCANHELPTHELEARNERDISCOVERTHERULESOFTHELANGUAGEPASSAGE1THESTUDENTSWHOENTERACOURSEWITHTHEBESTMAIDSINQUALIFYINGEXAMINATIONSARENOTNECESSARILYTHOSEWHOACHIEVETHEHIGHESTGRADESATCOLLEGEREMEMBERTHATTHESETWORKASSIGNMENTSORHOMEWORKISNOTALLTHATYOUSHOULDBEDOINGYOUMUSTEXTENDYOURSELFSEETHATYOUAREPLAYINGYOURPARTINTRYINGTODEVELOPANACTIVEINTERESTINTHEWORKIF,SOONAFTERSTARTINGACOURSEOFSTUDY,YOUFINDTHEWORKUNINTERESTINGORNOTWHATYOUEXPECTED,ORMUSHTOODIFFICULT,THENPERHAPSYOUSHOULDBEDOINGSOMETHINGELSEINSTEADHOWEVER,DONOTGIVEUPTOOEASILYTALKTOYOURACADEMICADVISERORPERSONALTUTOR,WHOWILLHAVEDOWNOTHERSTUDENTSWITHSIMILARPROBLEMSANDMAYREASSUREYOUOROFFERADVICEIFYOUWISHTOCHANGETOANOTHERCOURSE,THEREWILLBEATIMELIMITFORDOINGSOOBVIOUSLY,ITISBESTIFYOUMISSNOCLASSESANDTHEBEGINNINGOFACOURSEISESPECIALLYIMPORTANTTHELATERYOUJOINACLASSTHEHARDERITWILLBEFITINANDTOCOPEWITHTHEWORK1AQUALIFYINGEXAMINATIONISONECATAKENDURINGACOURSEISSTUDIEDBTAKENAFTERACOURSEISFINISHEDCTAKENBEFORECANTERINGACOURSEDFORTHOSEWHOWANTTOENTERCOLLAGE2INSAYING“YOUMUSTEXTENDYOURSELF”,THEWRITERMEANSDAYOUMUSTTAKEASMANYCOURSESASYOUCANBYOUMUSTDEVELOPANINTERESTINALLKINDSOFACTIVITIESCYOUMUSTENTERACOURSETHATMAYBRINGABOUTAGOODRESULTDYOUMUSTTAKEANACTIVEATTITUDETOWARDSYOURCOURSESTUDY3THEPHRASE“PLAYPARTIN”HEREREFERSAAMAKEACONTRIBUTIONBBECONCERNEDINCJOININDSHARE4SOONAFTERSTARTINGACOURSEOFSTUDY,ASTUDENTFINDTHEWORKUNINTERESTING,ORNOTWHATHEEXPECTED,ORMUCHTOODIFFICULT,THENHESHOULDBADOSOMETHINGELSEINSTEADBTALKTOHISACADEMICADVISERFORADVISORCGIVEUPDCHANGEANOTHERCOURSE5THEAUTHORSEEMSTOENCOURAGEUSTODAHELPOTHERSWITHCOURSESTHEYCHOOSEBCHANGECOURSESWITHINANACADEMICYEARCMISSTHOSECLASSESTHATAREOFNOINTERESTDJOINACLASSASEARLYASPOSSIBLEPASSAGE2THEWATERLEVELOFOCEANSRISESANDFALLSALTERNATELYTWICEADAYTHISMOVEMENTOFWATERISCALLEDTHETIDETIDESARECAUSEDBYTHEPULLOFTHESUNANDTHEMOONONTHEEARTH’SSURFACE;SINCETHEMOONISCLOSER,ITAFFECTSTHETIDESMORETHANTHESUNWHENTHEMOONISDIRECTLYOVERHEAD,ITACTUALLYPULLSONTHEWATERTHATISBELOWITTHISCAUSESTHEWATERLEVELTORISEBECAUSETHEWATERISPULLEDAWAYFROMTHEEARTHASTHEMOONDISAPPEARSOVERTHEHORIZON,THEPULLLESSENSANDTHEWATERLEVELSETTLESBACKTOWARDSTHEOCEANBOTTOMWHENTHEWATERREACHESITSHIGHESTLEVEL,WEHAVEHIGHTIDEANDWHENTHEWATERCOMESTOITSLOWESTLEVEL,WEHAVELOWTIDEFROMITSLOWESTPOINT,THEWATERRISESGRADUALLYFORABOUTSIXHOURSUNTILITREACHESHIGHTIDETHENITBEGINSTOFALLCONTINUOUSLYFORABOUTSIXHOURSUNTILITREACHESSLOWTIDETHENTHEEYELEBEGINSAGAIN6WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGMAYBETHEBESTTITLEFORTHEPASSAGEDATHEMOONANDOCEANBWATERLEVELSCTHEPULLOFTHEMOONANDTHESUNDTHEMOONANDTHETID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