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一、语法和词汇1、被动语态①WeshallputoffthemeetingtillFriday.ThemeetingwillbeputofftillFriday.②Notuntil1989washesetfree.③Imgladtobeallowedtovisityourschool.④Hewasrobbedofwalletlastnight.2、形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的变化规则、不规则变化①程度相等Heisasbusyasbefore.②程度不相等Itisnotsoascoldtodayasyesterday.③许多far,alot,agreatdeal,alittle,abit,much.④越越Themore,thebetter.⑤最高级TheYangtzeisthelongestriverinChina.3、介词①at表示某一时间点,地点(小)arriveatairport②in表示某一时间段,地点(大)arriveinHK③on表示某一天,星期几,在之上,arriveonFriday④between(两个之间)与among(三个以上之间)⑤for所朝向的目标,leaveforHK(去香港)⑥fromto,从到,from9AMto5PM⑦by后面不加冠词/完成时的标志,byair,bybusBythetimeIgotthere,thefilmhadalreadybegun.Ihavebeenteachingfor10years/since1990.4、情态公司①can.Twoeyes.canseemorethanone.Theycannothavegoneoutbecausethelightson.Youcangonow.②may.MayIaskyouaquestion/Hemayhaveseenthemovie.③must.Wemustleavenow./Shemusthavemadeamistake.④ouht.Yououghttotakehisadvice.WhenIgotthere,thefilmhadalreadybegun,Ioughttohavegotthereearlier.⑤need.Youneednttellhim.⑥dare.Howdaretheydosuchathing⑦should.Heshouldlearnhowtodrive./Heshouldhavebeenthereearlier.5、定语似句①关系代词Which,who,whom,whose,that的用法②关系副词when,why,howThatisthereasonwhyIamnottakingyouradvice.③介词which/whom仅有的两个Thegirltowhomyouspeakismysister.④非限制性定语从句Ihavethreetypesofpensinmybox,eachofthemwritessmoothly.6、倒装句①否定词在句首Notuntilhetoldmethenews,didIknowhewaskilledlastnight.②only在句首Onlyafterclasswasheallowedtogo.③so,nor,neither在句首Thefirstonewasntgoodenoughandneitherwasthesecond.④虚拟语气中Hadtheynotworkingsohard,theywouldnthavesucceeded.Hadwemadeupourmind,wemighthavesucceeded.IfIwereyou,Iwouldconsiderit.7、虚拟语气表示建议、命令、重要性等句子中使用,如suggest/insist/order/propose/requireshould动词原形,should常被省略,这些词的名词、形容词形式也一样,如Theysuggestthathenotsmokehere.Theirsuggestionwaswealljointheparty.Itsimportantthatwedoit.8、强调句Itis/was(仅此两种)that/who(人)/which(有时)9、as的用法(下册P2126)10、一致原则、就近原则(下册P7375)11、虚所语气(续)(下册P233P236)二、英汉互译1、我们拥有大量的自然资源Wehaveplentyofnaturalresources.2、Parents,teachersinschools,workassociatesandcommunicatorsinorusingthemassmediaareallcapableofarousingourpotentialinterests.Forexample,thedegreetowhichandthewaysinwhichaschoolencouragesparticipationingames,sportsandculturalpursuitsarelikelytocontributetotheshapingofleisureattitudesonthepartofthestudents.Schoolsusuallysetastheireducationalobjectivetheattainmentofabalanceddevelopmentoftheporson.Thejoreseriouslythisissought,themorelikelypositiveattitudetowardsleisureaswellasacademicwordwillbeencouraged.P1623、他在纠正学生错误时总是采取积极的态度Healwaystakespositiveattitudetocorrectthestudentsmistakes.4、他的肤色与他是否是个律师无关Hiscolorofskinisnotrelevanttowhetherhisisagoodlawyerornot.5、Someconcentratedstudyeachdayisbetterthanmanystudyhoursonedayandnothingthenext.Asyouworkoutyourindividualschedule,attempttoincludeaminimumoftwostudyhourseveryday.Thiswillnotonlykeepthestudyhabitalivebutalsokeepyouuptodateonyourclassassignmentsandprojects.P1756、他同现代生活不合板。Heisoutofstepwitmodernlife.7、Selfdsteemiswhatpeoplethinkaboutthemselveswhetherornottheyfeelvaluedandwhenfamilymembershaveselfrespect,pride,andbeliefinthemselves,thishighselfesteemmakesitpossibletotopewiththeeverydayproblemsofgrowingup.P2258、每个人都应关心自己国家的未来。Everybodyshouldbeconcernedaboutthefutureofhisowncountry.9、Whatwedreamat,nightisntasimportanttohowwefeelinthemorningasthenumberofpeoplewhoappearinourdreams.Themorepeople,thebetterwefeel.Oursleepinfluencesourmood.Ourmood,inturn,affectsourperformance.Andthroughouttheday,ourlevelsofmoodandperformanceremaincoselylinked.P30810、广义上说,任何人做的工作都对社会有益。Inabroadsense,theworkthatanyonedoesisofsocialvalue.11、在商业社会里信息对每个人都有用。Informationisofgreatvaluetoeveryoneinthebusinessworld.12、门被档住了,有什么东西档在那儿。Thedoorwasblocked,therewassomethingintheway.13、他们昨天来看你时,你在干什么Whatwereyoudoingwhentheycametoseeyouyesterday.14、他通过努力工作赢得了许多人的尊敬。Heearnedmanypeoplerespectbyworkinghard.15、没有你的帮助,我们举取是如此巨大的成功。Withoutyourhelp,wewouldnthavesogreatasuccess.三、其他练习1、Iwouldratherstayathomethangoout.2、oneselfeducation3、Igoupstairsinsteadoftakingthelife.4、Icouldnthelplaughing5、Ispend10yuanonthebood.6、Spendsometime/havetrouble/bebusyindoingsth.7、applyfor申请application,申请表格applyto应用applicant申请人8、Irememberbeingpaid我记得已经收了钱。9、Iremembertopay.我记得要去给钱的。(但并未给)Readingcomprehension阅读理解Passage1.Mealsshouldbeasortoftreat,notanutritional营养的treatment,foryourchildFornow,stopbeinganamateurnutritionist.Giveherthesortoffoodshereallyenjoys.Andgiveheronlyverysmallportions.Dontscoldherifshedoesnteateverythingonherplate.Ifsheseateneverythingandwantsmore,giveheronlytinyadditionalportions.NeverinsistthatsheeatseverythingonherPlate.Remain,tothebestofyourability,calm,unconcernedandindifferenttoherhabitofslowlypickingawayatherfood.Instead,enjoyyourownfood,andpaynoattentiontoher.Then,afterabout,say,30minutes,verycalmlypickupaltheplatesandothercrockery(陶器)fromthetable.Mealtimeisover.Maybeyourchildwillcomplainthatsheisntfinishedyet.Payhernoheed.Butdosay,forexamplethatsthewayitsgottobe.Wecantstayatthetabletoolongeating.Sorry,ifyourestillhungry,youlljusthavetowaituntillunchtime,orwhateverthenextmealis.31、Accordingtothepassage,mealsshouldbeasortoftreat.treatmeansD.A.banquetB.mismanageC.refreshmentsD.enjoyment32.Ifyourchilddoesnteateverythingonherplate,D.A.4rinsistthatsheeatseverythingonherplatB.giveheronlyverysmallportionC.giveherthesortoffoodshereallyenjoys.D.dontscoldde33.Mealtimeisover,butsheisntfinishedyet,ashermother,youshouldD.A.enjoyyourownfoodB.pickupalltheplatesC.paynoattentiontoherD.verycalmlypickuptheplatesandcrockery30minuteslater34.ThewordheedheremeansD.A.neglectB.careC.cautionD.attention35.ThepassagemainlyimpliesA.A.letthechildenjoyherfoodB.giveeverythingthechildwantsC.mealsisanutritionaltreatmentD.payattentiontothechildrensfoodPassage2Inordertoleanaforeignlanguagewell,itisnecessarytoovercomethefearofmakingmistakes.Iftheprimarygoaloflanguageuseiscommunication,themistakesaresecondaryconsiderationsthatmaybedealtwithgraduallyasawarenessofthosemistakesincreasesOntheotherhand,studentsshouldnotignoretheirmistakes.Thelanguageleanermayobservehownativespeakersexpressthemselves,andhownativeexpressionsdifferfromthewaythelearnermightsaythem.Forexample,aSpanishspeakerwhohasbeensayingIdoittoexpresswillingnesstodosomethingintheimmediatefuture,could,byinteractingwithnativespeakersofEnglish,observethatnativespeakersactuallysayIlldoit.Theresultingdiscrepancy分歧carserveasabasisforthestudenttomodifyhiswayofsingthepresentthenceinEnglish.Butastudentwhoisunwillingtointeractinthefirstplacewouldlosethisopportunitytolearnbytrialanderror.36.Accordingtothepassage,foreignlanguagestudentsshouldnotworrytoomuchaboutmakingmistakesbecauseA.A.communicationistheprimarygoaloflanguagelearningB.nativespeakerswillignoretheirmistakesC.everyonemakesmistakeswhentryingtocommunicateinastrangelanguage.D.nativespeakerslikeforeignstudentswhotrytoleantheirlanguage37.Accordingtothepassage,thepresenttenseinEnglishisCA.usedwithsomeverbsbutnotwithotherstoexpressfutureintentionB.basicallythesameasitisinSpanishC.notusedtoexpressadesiretodosomethingintheimmediatefutureD.notthemostdifficultproblemforforeignstudents38.TheauthorthinksthatlanguagereamerscanreducethenumberoftheirmistakesbyD.A.askingnativespeakersforexplanationB.readinggoodbooksintheforeignlanguageC.speakingwithoutregardtonativespeakersD.comparingtheirspeechwithwhatofnativespeakers39.ThepassageimpliesthatforeignlanguagestudentswhonotinteractwithnativespeakerswillnotA.A.latkeadvantageofavailablelanguagemodelsB.learnverymuchabouttheforeigncultureC.learnaboutthehistoryoftheforeignlanguageD.howtoworryaboutmakingmistakes.40.TheauthorsmajorconclusionaboutthefunctionofmistakesinforeignlanguagelearningisthatD.A.mistakesarenotimportantintheprocessoflearninglanguageB.leadersareoftenveryafraidofmakingmistakes.C.mistakesdonotinterferewithcommunicationD.makingmistakescanhelpthelearnerdiscovertherulesofthelanguage.Passage1Thestudentswhoenteracoursewiththebestmaidsinqualifyingexaminationsarenotnecessarilythosewhoachievethehighestgradesatcollege.Rememberthatthesetworkassignmentsorhomeworkisnotallthatyoushouldbedoing.Youmustextendyourself.Seethatyouareplayingyourpartintryingtodevelopanactiveinterestinthework.If,soonafterstartingacourseofstudy,youfindtheworkuninterestingornotwhatyouexpected,ormushtoodifficult,thenperhapsyoushouldbedoingsomethingelseinstead.However,donotgiveuptooeasily.Talktoyouracademicadviserorpersonaltutor,whowillhavedownotherstudentswithsimilarproblemsandmayreassureyouorofferadvice.Ifyouwishtochangetoanothercourse,therewillbeatimelimitfordoingso.Obviously,itisbestifyoumissnoclassesandthebeginningofacourseisespeciallyimportant.Thelateryoujoinaclasstheharderitwillbefitinandtocopewiththework.1.AqualifyingexaminationisoneC.A.takenduringacourseisstudiedB.takenafteracourseisfinishedC.takenbeforecanteringacourseD.forthosewhowanttoentercollage2.Insayingyoumustextendyourself,thewritermeansDA.youmusttakeasmanycoursesasyoucanB.youmustdevelopaninterestinallkindsofactivitiesC.youmustenteracoursethatmaybringaboutagoodresultD.youmusttakeanactiveattitudetowardsyourcoursestudy3.ThephraseplaypartinhererefersAA.makeacontributionB.beconcernedinC.joininD.share4.Soonafterstartingacourseofstudy,astudentfindtheworkuninteresting,ornotwhatheexpected,ormuchtoodifficult,thenheshouldBA.dosomethingelseinsteadB.talktohisacademicadviserforadvisorC.giveupD.changeanothercourse5.TheauthorseemstoencourageustoDA.helpotherswithcoursestheychooseB.changecourseswithinanacademicyearC.missthoseclassesthatareofnointerestD.joinaclassasearlyaspossiblePassage2Thewaterlevelofoceansrisesandfallsalternatelytwiceaday.Thismovementofwateriscalledthetide.Tidesarecausedbythepullofthesunandthemoonontheearthssurfacesincethemooniscloser,itaffectsthetidesmorethanthesunwhenthemoonisdirectlyoverhead,itactuallypullsonthewaterthatisbelowit.Thiscausesthewaterleveltorisebecausethewaterispulledawayfromtheearth.Asthemoondisappearsoverthehorizon,thepulllessensandthewaterlevelsettlesbacktowardstheoceanbottom.Whenthewaterreachesitshighestlevel,wehavehightide.Andwhenthewatercomestoitslowestlevel,wehavelowtide.Fromitslowestpoint,thewaterrisesgraduallyforaboutsixhoursuntilitreacheshightide.Thenitbeginstofallcontinuouslyforaboutsixhoursuntilitreachesslowtide.Thentheeyelebeginsagain.6.WhichofthefollowingmaybethebesttitleforthepassageDA.themoonandoceanB.waterlevelsC.thepullofthemoonandthesunD.themoonandthetide7.ThepullofthemoonontheearthssurfaceisstrongerthatofthesunbecauseAA.themoonisclosertothesunB.themoonisdirectlyovertheearthC.themoonpullsthewaterawayfromtheearthD.themoonmovesaroundtheearth8.WaterlevelreachesitslowpointwhenDA.themoonishiddenbycloudsB.themoonsaffectisindirectC.thesunisoverheadD.themoonmoversfaraway9.HightideoccursDA.every6hoursB.every24hoursC.every18hoursD.every12hours10.Accordingtothepassage,whichofthefollowingstatementistrueAA.TidesaretheresultofthepullofthemoonandthesunB.WeathersometimesaffectstidesC.TheforcedirectlyaffectingtheearthssurfacecomesfrommoononlyD.Theeffectofthesunontheoceanwatercanbeneglected.Passage1Doctorshaveknownforalongtimethatextremelyloudnoisescancausehearingdamageofloss.Thenoisecanbethesoundofajetairplaneormachinesinfactoriesorloudmusicorothercommonsoundsfoundathomeandatwork.Apersononlyneedstohearthenoiselittlemorethanonesecondtobeaffected.AnAmericanscientisthatfoundthatusingaspirincanincreasethetemporary短暂的hearinglossordamagefromloudnoise.Hedidanexperimentusinganumberofstudentsatauniversitywhoallhadnormalhearing.Hehavethemdifferentamountsofaspirinfordifferentperiodsoftime,thenhetestedtheirhearingability.Hefoundthatstudentswhoweregivenfourgramsofaspirinadayfortwodayssufferedmuchgreatertemporaryhearinglossthanthosewhodidnotuseaspirin.Thehearinglosswasabouttwotimesasgreat.ThescientistsaidmillionsofpersonsintheUnitedStatesusemuchlargeramountsofaspirinthanwereusedinhisexperiment.Hesaidthesepersonsfaceaseriousdangerofsufferinghearinglossfromloudnoise.31.DoctorshavelongknownthatAA.onemaylosehishearingwhenhehearsaterriblyloudnoise湖南自考网http//www.zikao.hn.cn/B.onemaynotbecomedeafwhenhehearsaloudnoiseC.loudnoisescancausedamagetothehearingofyoungpeopleonlyD.commonsoundsathomearenotharmfultotheear32.ThispassagesuggeststhatoneshearingDA.willbedamagedevenifhehasheardaloudnoiseforlessthanonesecondB.willnotbedamagedifhehasheardaloudnoiseforonlylittlemorethanonesecondC.willnotbedamagedifhehaslittlemorethanonesecondtogetreadyD.willbedamagedevenifhehasheardaloudnoiseforonlylittlemorethanonesecond33.hasbeenusedtoincreasethetemporaryhearinglossordamagefromloudnoise.A.AnalginB.AnodyneC.SleepingpillD.Aspirin34.OneconclusionyoucandrawfromthispassageisthataspirinBA.shouldneverbetakenmorethanfourgramsB.makeshearingdamagefromloudnoiseworseC.alwaysincreaseshearinglossbytwotimesD.candamageoneshearingwhenitisgivenmorethanfourgramsdaily35.WhyaremillionsofAmericansindangerofsufferinghearinglossAA.BecausetheytaketoomuchaspirinB.BecausetheyoftentakeairtripsC.BecausetheylikelisteningtoloudmusicD.BecausetheyhavetoomuchloudnoisesathomeandatworkPassage2Therearethousandsoffreelibrariesaboutthecountry.Thefactthateveryonecanusetheselibrariesmeansthat,asawhole,Americanshaveagreateropportunitytoreadthananyotherpeopleintheworld.Still,allisnotasitshouldbe.Itisdifficulttobelieve,butthehardfactisthathalfthecitizensofourcountry,wherenearlyeveryonecanread,donotreadonebookayear.Aninvestigationofbookreadingshowedthatforathreeyearperiod,48percentofthepeopleoftheUnitedStatesdidnotreadabookand18percentreadlessthanfour.ThatmeansthatoveronehundredmillionAmericansdidverylittleofbookreadingduringoneofthepeoplewhodidntreadbooksdidntredmagazineseither,andsixteenmilliondidnotevenreadthenewspaper.Thisisanationtowhichtheworldlooksforenlightenedleadership.36.formthefirstparagraphweleanthatBA.intheoryAmericanshavemoreopportunitiestoreadbutinfacttheydontB.mostofAmericanscanusetheirlibrariesfreeofchargebutnotallofthemcandosoC.notalltheAmericanlibrariesarefreetoadmit.SomechargereadersagreatdealD.everyAmericanhasachancetoreadinalibrary,buthedoesntactuallymakeuseofit37.HowmanycitizensofAmericadonotreadonebookayearAA.HalfB.1/C.1/5D.Nearlyeveryone38.Accordingtothepassage,howmanyAmericadidnotreadabookforathreeyearperiodDA.90percentofB.20percentofC.50percentofD.48percentof39.HowmanyAmericanswhodidntreadbooksdidntreadmagazineseitherBA.OvertwentymillionB.OverfiftymillionC.OverfifteenmillionD.Oversixteenmillion40.WhatdoestheauthorcallonAmericanstodoAA.MakegooduseoftheirlibrariesB.Bereadersbeforeyouaretobeleaders.C.AdmirethosewhoarebothgoodreadersandleadersD.Arousethosewhoareindifferenttowardilliteracy.Cloze10(完形填空)Whenpeopletreatyouwithlove.kindness,andunderstanding,youdevelopgoodfeelingsaboutyourself.Youhavea41selfimage.Whenpeople,mistreat,orrejectyou,youtendtodevelopbadfeelingsaboutyourself.Atsuchtimes,youselfimageisnegative.No42howyoufeelaboutyourself,thereisanotheryou.Thisisthepersonyoushowto43youpublicimage.Peoplereacttowhattheyseetoyourappearanceand44.Theycannotreacttoyouthoughtsandfeelingsandhowyoureallyareinside.Thereisalsothirdyou.Youhave45iscalledanidealidealimagine.Anidealimageisthepersonyouwouldliketobeandwouldlikeotherpeopletosee.Yourselfimage,yourpublicimage,andyouridealimagearepiecesofthecomplexpuzzleofpersonality.Anintegrated,or46,personalityistheresultofthelongandsometimespainfulprocessofgrowingup.Atdifferentstagesoflife,peoplesidentitieschange.47,youprobably.Nowareputtingyouridentityasachildbehindyouanddevelopingtheidentityofayoungadult.Allyourpreviousidentitieswill48toyournewsenseofself.Youcanfitallthesepiecesintoasatisfyingwhole.Todothisinvolveseffortanddecisionmaking49onthinkingandreasoning,Remember,though,thatthisisnotaonetimeprocess.Aswithyourotherneeds,itisongoing,Everyone,50ofage,iscontinuallyworkingtowardbecomingwhatheronhisideaisofastable,wholeperson.41.A.standardB.negativeC.positiveD.wrong42.A.interestB.loveC.problemD.matter43.A.othersB.friendsC.audiencesD.people44.A.thoughtB.behaviorC.feelingD.understanding45.A.whatB.seenC.oneD.other46.A.allB.fullC.partD.whole47.A.forexampleB.inadditionC.ingeneralD.contribute48.A.introduceB.affectC.influenceD.contribute49.A.focusedB.basedC.dependedD.acted50.A.regardlessB.insteadC.independentD.becauseLearninggoesonbyaddingnewfactsorskillstoBthelearneralreadyhas,Eachnewfactorskilliseasiertoadd,thananythatwaslearnedbeforeit,ThusthemoreoneknowsaboutasubjecttheeasierDtolearnnewthingsaboutit,.Althoughmemoryisimportant,studyisnotaDofmemoryonly.Arithmeticproblems,forinstance,aremainlypracticeinusingnumbersinwaysalreadyC.Reading,spelling,andwritingareskillsubjectsDandrequirepractice.TheyarealsotoolsubjectsBwhichthelearnercanincreasehisknowledge.Thesciences,languagearts,andsocialstudiesareskillsubjectsonlyB,TheyalsogivethelearnerpracticeinunderstandingrelationshipsAideasandevents,orecauseandaffect.SomefactsandskillsareleanedbyBactivities,Somearelearnedbywatchingwhatothersdoorbywatchingwhatothersdoorbyreadingaboutwhathappened,Aeverycaseonelearnsfasterifhehasabackgroundofinformationfromexperienceorstudy.41.A.thatB.thoseC.whichD.these42.A.thatisB.hehasC.thereisD.itis43.A.roleB.workC.lotD.matter44.A.tobelearnedB.beinglearnedC.learnedD.tohavelearned45.A.yetB.howeverC.eitherD.too46.A.asaresultofB.inadditiontoC.inregardtoD.bymeansof47.A.inturnB.inpartC.incaseD.inplace48.A.betweenB.outofC.forD.on49.A.takingB.givingrisetoC.keepingupwithD.takingadvantageof50.A.InB.OnC.ForD.AtTeachingissupposedBaprofessionalactivltyrequitinglongandcomplicatedtrainingaswellasofficialcertification.Theartofteachingis42flowofknowledgeformahighersourcetoanemptycontainer.ThestudentsroleisBofreceivinginformation,theteachersroleisoneofsendingit.Thereisacleardistinctionassumedbetweenonewhoissupposedtoknowandthereforenotcapableofbeingwrongandanother,usuallyyoungerpersonwhoAtoknow.However,teachingCtheprovinceofaspecialgroupofpeoplenorneeditbelookeduponasatechnicalskill.TeachingcanDguidingandassistingthanforcinginformationthroughasupposedlyemptyhead.Ifyouhaveacertainskillyoushouldbeable47someone.Youdonothavetoetcertifieditconveywhatyounowtosomeoneelseortohelpthemintheirattempttoteachthemselves.AllofusAtheveryyoungestchildrentoDmembersofourculturesshouldcometorealizeourownpotential(潜力)asteachers.Wecansharewhatknow,Blittleitmightbe,with,someonewhohasneedofthatknowledgeorskill.41.A.havingB.tobeC.beingD.tohave42.A.lookinguponB.lookedasC.lookeddownasD.lookeduponas43.A.eachB.oneC.eachotherD.oneanother44.A.issupposednotB.supposedC.doesntsupposedD.supposenot45.A.notneedtobeB.neednottobeC.neednotbeD.bemorelike46.A.belikeB.toelikeC.morelikeD.bemorelike47.A.sharedbyB.toshareitwithC.sharingofD.sharewith48.A.fromB.amongC.alongD.since49.A.theolderB.theeldestC.theelderD.theoldest50.A.whateverB.howeverC.wheneverD.whoeverⅠ.Vocabularyandstructure1、environmentn.环境,周围状况2、pursuev.追求,追赶3、consistof包含,包括4、befedupwith对感到厌烦5、atonesrequest应的要求6、beworthdoing值得做7、keeppacewith跟上,与同步9、substancen.物质,本质10、identifywith把和等同起来11、beresponsiblefor对负责的,对承担责任的12、preferdoingsth.todoingsth.比较起(后者)更喜欢(前者)13、acceptablea.可以接受的14、investigatev.调查,调查研究15、referencen.提及,涉及,参考16、priorityn.优先,优先考虑17、factorn.因素,要素18、professionn.职业19、conflictn./v.争论,冲突20.populara.普及的,流行的21.characteristica./n.典型的,特性22.generallyad.一般地,大体上23、revolvev.旋转,绕转24、operatev.运转,动手术25、reliabilityn.可靠性26、approachv./n.靠近,接近方法27、energetica.力的,精力旺盛的28、feasiblea.可行的,可能的29、franklyad.坦白的,直率的30、realistica.现实的,逼真的31.affectvt.影响,打动32.basicallyad.基本上的,从根本上说33、temptationn.引诱,诱惑34、observationn.注意,观察35、emotionala.感情的,情绪的36、motiven.动机,目的37、ensurev.保证,担保38、hobbyn.业余爱好39、purchasevt./n.买,购买的物品40、householdn.家庭,户41、societyn.社会42、ignorevt.不顾,忽视43、providedconj.假如,若是44、commerciallyad.商业地,商务地45、recognizev.认出,承认46、focusn.焦点,(注意的)中心47、educationala.教育的48、remotea.遥远的49、contactn./vt.接触,联系50、entertainmentn.娱乐51、editorn.编辑,编者52、magnifica.壮丽的,宏伟的53、occasionallyad.偶然地,间或54、deprivev.剥夺,使丧失55、interruptv.打断,打扰56、advanceda.先进的,高级的57、mainlyad.主要地,大部分地58、regardvt./n.考虑重视,关心59、headlinen.大字标题新闻提要60、recoverv.恢复,痊愈重新获得61、tougha..强壮的粗暴的困难的62、domestica.家庭的国内的63、discardvt.丢弃,抛弃64、beneficiala.有益的,有利的65、stressn./vt.压力重音强调66、overcomev.战胜67、casuallyad.随意地漫不经心地68、intentionn.意图打算69、threatenvt.威胁预示70、potentiala.潜在的,可能的71、supremea.最高的,极度的72、usagen.惯用法73、impressionn.印象74、boringa.枯燥的,无趣的75、awarea.意识到的75、rudea.粗鲁的77、peculiara.特殊的78、decaden.十年79、quotationn.引文80、survivaln.幸存81、wandervi.漫游82、effectivelyad.有效果地83、collectionn.收集84、smokern.吸烟者85、lungn.肺Ⅱ.Wordform1、Dontyouseehim_coming___cometowardsus2、Haveyouanydifficulty_in_analyzing__analyzethesentence3、Everyboyandgirl___treat___treatinthesameway.4、Hestoodtherewithhishands___crossing___crossbeforehim.5、LuXun___wasknown____knowasagreatwriterandwasrespectedbymanypeople.6、Itisessentialthateverychild__has_____havethesameeducationalopportunities.7、Itrained__continually___continualthewholedayyesterday.8、Whenshearrived,I__had__waited____waitforthreehours.9、Shewasannoyed_ignoring_ignore.10、Helefthishometowntolookfor___employment____employinabigcity.11、Fiveplanesattackedattackthreecoastalvillageontheisland.12、Theyareworkinghardto__industryindustrytheircountry.13、Hewas_strongly_strongcriticizedforbeingsocarelessinwork.14、She___was_____bealivetodayifthedoctorhadcomesoonerlastnight.15、He___flied__flytoEgypttoconductnegotiationsontheAswanDamlastweek.16、Youmustalltaketheexample.Icanmakeno__exception___except.17、Imsorryyouwillbe__separated__separatefromher.18、Shefinally_concluded__conclusionthatshewouldtrytogetajobinastore.19、Wemusthurryofflestwe__will_miss__missthetrain.20、__Does__doit__make__makesensetoletlittlechildrenplaywithmatches21、Howusefulwouldalibrarybeifthebooks__keep_keepinrandomorder22、Thepatienthasmade__repeated_repeatrequestsforeuthanasia.23、Most__divorcing__divorcepeoplewillsoonremarry.24、Theseshopwindowswillbeusedfordisplayingdisplaysummerclothes.25、Theatmosphereprotectsusfromthesuns_deading___deadrays.26、Itiswellknownthatsmokingis_harm__harmtooneshealth.27、Hiswifeaskedhimtogiveupsmokingbecauseshe_objected_objecttothesmellofit.28、Thecompanieshavetopaypayofftheiroldloansbeforeallowingnewones.29、Heoffered__finding_findajobforme.30、ThetacksgivenbytheheroesfromtheChinesepeoplesLiberationArmyarebothexcitingandinstructinginstruct31、Thestudentslistenedtotheclasswith__concentration__concentrate.32、_experienced__experiencediamondminerscantelladiamondimmediately.33、Somestudentsrefuse__to_hear__hearthetimemessage.34、Despitetechnicalprogress,agriculturalproductionstilldependingdependontheclimate.35、Thedoctorgaveaveryfavoritefavoritereportonhishealth.36、Thetwonewhotelsunderconstructedconstructnearhereareinaforeignstyle.37、Sheisanervousandexcitableteacherandisconsideredstablingstableenoughtocontinuewithherwork38、Inormallynormalgotobedat1100p.m.39、Otheradverbsoffrequencefrequentarecontinually.40、Theengineerwasveryangrybecausethedesigngiventohimwasafaulfaultone.Ⅲ.Clozetestpassage1Wedonotknow1how_thefirstfirewasmade.Earlyfiresonearthwerecertainlycausedbynature,notbyman.2_Somewerecausedbylightinginastorm3others_,perhaps,bythehotmaterialfromavolcano.Quitepossible,attimes,theheatofthesunsetlighttosomedrygrassorleaves.Atfirst,man,likeotheranimals,wasprobablyafraid4_offire.Hesawthatfire5coulddestroyaforestheknewthatfirecouldhurthisbody.6Sogreatwasthepoweroffirethathefeareditandworshippedit.Gradually,7however,withhisbetterpowersofthinking,heovercamehisfear.Probablyheovercamemostofhisfearwhenhediscoveredhowtomakefireforhimself,butundoubtedly,helearnedsomeoftheusesoffire8beforehecouldmakeonewhenandwherehewished.9Duringtheageshehaslearnedmoreaboutfire,howtocontrolit,andhowtouseitinmanyways.Nowfireis10nolongeramasterofagoditisaservant.1.A.whyB.howC.WhatD.that2.A.SomeB.AnyC.AlittleD.Few3.A.anotherB.theotherC.othersD.theothers4.A.inB.outofC.ofD.from5.A.mightaswellB.mustC.shouldD.could6.A.SoB.SuchC.TooD.Rather7.A.thereforeB.thoughC.moreoverD.however8.A.tillB.beforeC.afterD.since9.A.DuringB.AlloverC.ThroughoutD.For10.A.lessmoreB.hardlymoreC.anylongerDnolongerpassage2Whenchildrenwereborn,mywifeNancygaveupherjobtolookafterthem.Ayearago,NancyandIdecidedtochangeroles.Nancywasbeginningtoget1boringathomeallday.Iwasworkinghardatthetime,2butIdidntenjoymyjob.Mostofall,Ihatedtravellingtoworkintherushhoureveryday.IthoughtNancywastheluckyoneshe3canorganizeherdayinherownwayshedidnthaveaboss4tellingherwhattodo.ButIdidntthinkofexchangingroleswithher5untilsheapplied申请forajob.Shegotthejob,atasalary薪金higherthanmine.Itseemedsensibleforher6totakeitandformetostayathome.AtfirstIreallyenjoyedstayingathomeand7beingwiththechildren.Inowunderstandmychildrenbetterthrough8spendingsomuchtimewiththem.ButImust9admit,Idofindhouseworkveryboring.Mostofmyfriendsareatworkallday,soIoftendonthave10anadultconversationwithanyoneuntilNancycomeshome1.A.boringB.boredC.boredomD.tired2.A.butB.andC.soD.also3.A.canB.mustC.hadtoD.could4.A.totellB.tellC.tellingD.told5.A.untilB.whenC.whileD.as6.A.takingB.totakeC.acceptD.toreceive7.A.tobeB.beC.beingD.was8.A.spendB.spentC.tospendD.spending9.A.toadmitB.admitC.admittingD.admitted10.A.theB.anC.aDthatpassage3Agentlemanputanadvertisementinanewspaperforaboytoworkinhisoffice.Outofnearlyfiftypersonswhocametoapply,themanselectedoneanddismissedthe1others.Ishouldliketoknow,saidafriend,thereasonyou2preferthatboy,whobroughtnotasingleletter,3norasinglerecommendation介绍信.Youarewrong,saidthegentleman.Hehadagreat4many.Hewipedhisfeetatthedoorandclosedthedoorbehindafterhim,5showingthathewascareful.Hegavehisseatimmediatelytothatoldman,showingthathewaskindand6mindful.Hetookoffhiscapwhenhecameinand7answeredmyquestionspromptly敏捷地,showing8thathewaspoliteandgentlemanly.AllthereststeppedoverthebookwhichIhadpurposely故意地put9onthefloor.Hepickeditupandplaceditonthetableandhewaited10quietlyforhisturninsteadofpushingandcrowding.WhenItalkedtohim,Inoticedhistidyclothing,hisneatlybrushedhairandhiscleanfingernails.CantyouseethatthesethingsareexcellentrecommendationsIconsiderthemmoresignificantthanletters.1.A.otherB.anotherC.othersD.anothers2.A.preferredB.preferC.arepreferringD.prefer3.A.andB.notC.noD.nor4.A.muchB.moreC.mostD.many5.A.showingB.showsC.showedD.shown6.A.thoughtlessB.thoughtfulC.mindlessD.mindful7.A.answeringB.answerC.answeredD.toanswer8.A.whatB.whichC.thisD.that9.A.onB.overC.toD.down10.A.noisilyB.voicelesslyC.quietlyD.eagerlypassage4ThesedaysIdontwatchtelevision,1butafewyearsagoI2usedtowatchiteverynight.Iwasoften3moretiredintheeveningsandtherearefewformsofentertainmentthat4demandas5greateffortastelevision.6Unfortunately,therearealargenumberofpeopleinmyfamily,somewantedtowatchoneprogram7whileotherspreferredanother.Iwashappytolookatanyprogram,buttheothersspentagreatdealoftimearguingeachnightandtherewasnowayof8settlingthematterexcept9forsellingtheset.Noweveryoneathomereads10instead.1.A.sinceB.butC.beforeD.moreover2.A.usedB.beganC.decidedD.had3.A.alittleofB.abitofC.alittleD.more4.A.demandsB.requiresC.demandD.do5.A.fewB.greatC.littleD.much6.A.UnfortunateB.LuckilyC.FortunatelyD.Unfortunately7.A.andB.whileC.inspiteofD.regardlessof8.A.beingsettledB.concludingC.dealingD.settling9.A.forB.withC.ofD.by10.A.insteadofB.insteadC.inreturnD.forreturnⅣ.Readingcomprehensionpassage1Apersonwhoisabletooperateamachine,prepareafinancialstatement,programacomputer,orpassafootballhasatechnicalskill.Thatis,heorsheisabletoperformthemechanicsofaparticularjob.Managerssuchasproductionsupervisorsmustoftenunderstandatechnicalskillswellenoughtotrainworkersintheirjobs.Incertaincompanies,executiveswithouttechnicalskillscanmanagenonproductionworkerswhohavetechnicalskillsinprogramming,engineering,oraccounting.Butevenhere,mostmanagershavetohavesometechnicalskillssuchasschedulingtechniquesandtheabilitytoreadcomputerprintouts.Technicalskillsaresometimesnotreadilytransferablefromoneindustrytoanother,whereasgeneralmanagementskillscanoftenbeappliedtoawiderangeofindustries.Ifyouretrainedtooperatetextilecuttingmachines,youprobablywouldbeunabletouseyourskillsintherestaurantbusiness.Ifyoureanexecutivewhorunsagarmentbusiness,however,youmightbeabletouseyourgeneralmanagementskillsindifferententerprises.1.WhichofthefollowingdoesnotseemtobeatechnicalskillAA.Managingnonproductionworkers.B.Programmingacomputer.C.Preparingafinancialstatement.D.Operatingatextilecuttingmachine.2.Thefirstparagraphismainlyabout___B____.A.apersonwhohasatechnicalskillB.thedefinitionofatechnicalskillC.managerssuchasproductionsupervisorsD.howtooperateamachine3.Inthewritersopinion,___C____.A.technicalskillsaremoreimportantthanmanagementskillsB.technicalskillsarecomplexthanmanagementskillsC.itisnecessaryformanagerstolearnsometechnicalskills.D.itisdifficultformanagerstolearntechnicalskills4.Generalmanagementskills__B___.A.canbelearnedbutnotbetaughtatatechnicalschoolB.areusedbygeneralmanagersindifferentwaysC.canbeappliedtodifferententerprisesD.arenotreadilytransferablefromoneindustrytoanother5.Thebesttitleforthispassagewouldbe__C____.A.ImportanceofTechnicalSkillsB.ManagersandTheirBusinessSkillsC.TechnicalSkillsandManagementSkillsD.HowOneSkillIsTransferredtoAnotherPassage2Thestudentswhoenteracoursewiththebestmarksinqualifyingexaminationsarenotnecessarilythosewhoachievethehighestgradesatcollege.Rememberthatthesetworkassignmentsorhomeworkisnotallthatyoushouldbedoing.Youmustextendyourselfseethatyouareplayingyourpartintryingtodevelopanactiveinterestinthework.If,soonafterstartingacourseofstudy,youfindtheworkuninteresting,ornotwhatyouexpected,ormuchtoodifficult,thenperhapsyoushouldbedoingsomethingelseinstead.However,donotgiveuptooeasily.Talktoyouracademicadviserorpersonaltutor,whowillhaveknownotherstudentswithsimilarproblemsandmayreassureyouorofferadvice.Ifyouwishtochangetoanothercourse,therewillbealimitfordoingso.Obviously,itisbestifyoumissnoclassesandthebeginningofacourseisespeciallyimportant.Thelateryoujoinaclass,theharderitwillbetofitinandtocopewiththework.1.Aqualifyingexaminationisone__D____.A.takenbeforeenteringacourseB.takenduringacourseisstudiedC.takenafteracourseisfinishedD.forthosewhowanttoentercollege2.Insayingyoumustextendyourself,thewritermeans___A___.A.youmusttakeanactiveattitudetowardsyourcoursestudyB.youmusttakeasmanycoursesasyoucanC.youmustdevelopaninterestinallkindsofactivitiesD.youmustenteracoursethatmaybringaboutagoodresult3.Thephraseplaypartininline4refers__B____.A.beconcernedinB.makeacontributionC.joininD.share4.Soonafterstartingacourseofstudy,astudentfindstheworkuninteresting,ornotwhatheexpected,ormuchtoodifficult,thenheshould___C___.A.dosomethingelseinsteadB.giveupC.talktohisacademicadviserforadviceD.changeanothercourse5.Theauthorseemstoencourageusto____A__.A.helpotherswithcoursestheychooseB.changecourseswithinanacademicyearC.joinaclassasearlyaspossibleD.missthoseclassesthatareofnointerestPassage3Howmenfirstlearnedtoinventwordsisunknown,inotherwords,theoriginoflanguageisamystery.Allwereallyknowisthatmen,unlikeanimals,somehowinventedcertainsoundstoexpressthoughtsandfeelings,actionsandthings,sothattheycouldcommunicatewitheachotherandthatlatertheyagreeduponcertainsigns,calledletters,whichcouldbecombinedtorepresentthosesoundsandwhichcouldbewrittendown.Thosesounds,whetherspoken,orwritteninletters,wecallwords.Thepowerofwords,then,liesintheirassociationsthethingstheybringupbeforeourminds.Wordsbecomefilledwithmeaningforusbyexperienceandthelongerwelive,themorecertainwordsrecalltousthegladandsadeventsofourpastandthemorewereadandlearn,themorethenumberofwordsthatmeansomethingtousincreases.1.Accordingtothewriter,wordsare___C___.A.lettersB.meaningsC.soundsD.associations2.Lettersherereferto___B__.A.writtenmessageB.signsrepresentingsoundsC.literatureandlearningD.words3.WhatistheoriginoflanguageCA.Whatneededtobewrittendown.B.Amatterthatishiddenorsecret.C.Anunanswerablequestion.D.Anactionneededdescribing.4.WhatdoestherealpowerofwordsexistinAA.Soundsandletters.B.Characteristics.C.Thoughtsandfeelings.D.Representativefunction.5.WordsbecomefilledwithmeaningbyCA.readingB.recallingC.experienceD.associationsPassage4Banksweredevelopedtokeeppeoplesmoneysafeandtomakeitavailablewhentheyneededit.Sincemoneywasinvented,peoplehavebeenborrowingandlendingit.Amodernbankacceptspeoplesmoneyforsafekeeping.Italsolendsmoneyandoffersmanyotherservices.Theexperienceofabusinessmanwillshowsomeofthese.JamesJoneshasafurniturestoreandbuyshisgoodsfromdifferentpartsofthecountry.Itisntconvenientforhimtosendmoneythroughthemail,sohegoestothebankandopensacheckingaccount.Heputshismoneyinthebankregularly,andthebankkeepsituntilhewriteschecksforthatamount.WhenMr.JonesordersfurniturefromtheModernFurnitureCompanyinanothercity,hesimplywritesacheck.Thischeckisasgoodasmoneytotheownerofthecompany.Theownercantakeittohisbankandcashit,thatis,hecangetmoneyforit.NowandthenMr.Jonesdepositsmoneyinsavingsaccountatthebank.Thebankthenusesthismoneyandpayshimacertainpercentageoneachdollareveryyear.Forexample,ifhedeposits1000andthebankpayshim4percent,hewillhave装订线内不要答题,装订线外不要写姓名、考号、工作单位,违者试卷作0分处理○○○○○○earned40bytheendoftheyear.Thispaymentiscalledinterest.Mr.Jonesgetsstillotherservicesfromthebank.Whenhetravels,hebuystravelerschecksfromthebankinsteadofcarryingmoneywithhim.Andhecanrentasafedepositboxinthebankforhisvaluablepapersandarticles.Itshardtoimaginethatpeoplecoulddobusinesswithouttheservicesofabank.1.Amodernbankoffersthefollowingservicesexcept___C__.A.keepingpeoplesmoneysafeB.lendingmoneytobusinessmenC.puttingitsmoneyinotherbanksD.cashingthecustomerscheck2.ThesavingsaccounthelpsMr.Jones__A___.A.putasidehismoneyandearnsomeinterestB.writeacheckandcashitatanotherbankC.keephismoneyfrombeingaidtoothersD.paythebankacertainamountofmoneyattheendoftheyear3.Travelerschecks___D__.A.aremoneycarriedbythepeoplewhotravelB.permittravelerstogoabroadC.areusedforinvestmentinbusinessD.areoneoftheservicesprovidedbythebank4.Tocashacheckmeansto__B__.A.buyitfromthebankB.getmoneyforitC.returnittothebankD.askthebanktokeepit5.Thepurposeofdepositingmoneyinasavingsaccountatthebankis__A__.A.toearnsomeinterestB.tobuytravelerschecksC.towriteacheckD.toborrowmoneyfromthebankPassage5Accordingtothecensus人口调查of1800,theUnitedStatesofAmericacontained5,308,483persons.InthesameyeartheBritishIslandscontainedupwardsoffifteenmilliontheFrenchRepublic,morethantwentysevenmillion.NearlyonefifthoftheAmericanpeoplewereblackslavesthetruepoliticalpopulationconsistedoffourandahalfmillionfreewhites,orlessthanonemillionablebodiedmales,onwhoseshouldersfelltheburdenofacontinent.Evenaftertwocenturiesofstrugglethelandwasstilluntamedforestcoveredeveryportion,excepthereandthereastripofcultivatedsoilthemineralslayundisturbedintheirrockybeds,andmorethantwothirdsofthepeopleclungtotheseaboardwithinfiftymilesoftidewater,wherealonethewantsofcivilizedlifecouldbesupplied.1.ThestruggletotametheAmericancontinenthadbeengoingon__D__.A.aboutfiftyyearsB.alittlemorethanacenturyC.since1750D.abouttwohundredyears2.FreewhitemeninAmericanumbered_C__.A.aboutfourfifthsofthepopulationB.lessthanonemillionC.aboutfourandonehalfmillionD.5,308,4833.TwothirdsoftheAmericanpeople__D__.A.livedwherethewantsofcivilizedlifecouldnotbesuppliedB.livedinthewestpartofthecountryC.livedalongtheseacoastD.livednearbigrivers4.Wemayconcludethataround1800theUnitedStates___A____.A.wassparselypopulatedB.wasdenselypopulatedC.hadmorewomenthanmenD.hadfewchildren5.ThisdescriptionoftheUnitedStatesin1800suggeststhat___B____.A.thepeopleofthenewnationhadsucceededintamingthecontinentB.mostofthenewnationwasundevelopedC.stripsofcultivatedlandwereeverywhereD.settlerswerebeginningtominethevaluablemineralsofthenewcontinentPassage6Therearethousandsoffreelibrariesaboutthecountry.Thefactthateveryonecanusetheselibrariesmeansthat,asawhole,Americanshaveagreateropportunitytoreadthananyotherpeopleintheworld.Still,allisnotasitshouldbe.Itisdifficulttobelieve,butthehardfactisthathalfthecitizensofourcountry,wherenearlyeveryonecanread,donotreadonebookayear.Aninvestigationofbookreadingshowedthatforathreeyearperiod,48percentofthepeopleoftheUnitedStatesdidnotreadabookand18percentreadlessthanfour.ThatmeansthatoveronehundredmillionAmericansdidverylittleofbookreadingduringoneofthemostcrucialperiodsinourhistory.Theinvestigationalsoshowedthatoverhalfofthepeoplewhodidntreadbooksdidntreadmagazineseither,andsixteenmilliondidnotevenreadthenewspaper.Thisisanationtowhichtheworldlooksforenlightenedleadership.1.Fromthefirstparagraphwelearnthat___A___.A.everyAmericanhasachancetoreadinalibrary,buthedoesntactuallymakeuseofitB.intheoryAmericanshavemoreopportunitiestoreadbutinfacttheydontC.mostofAmericanscanusetheirlibrariesfreeofchargebutnotallofthemcandosoD.notalltheAmericanlibrariesarefreetoadmit,somechargereadersagreatdeal2.HowmanycitizensofAmericadonotreadonebookayearCA.1/3.B.1/5.C.Half.D.Nearlyeveryone.3.Accordingtothepassage,howmanyAmericansdidnotreadabookforathreeyearperiodBA.90percentof.B.48percentof.C.50percentof.D.20percentof.4.HowmanyAmericanswhodidntreadbooksdidntreadmagazineseitherBA.Overtwentymillion.B.Overfifteenmillion.C.Oversixteenmillion.D.Overfiftymillion.5.WhatdoestheauthorcallonAmericanstodoDA.Bereadersbeforeyouaretobeleaders.B.Admirethosewhoarebothgoodreadersandleaders.C.Arousethosewhoareindifferenttowardilliteracy.D.Makegooduseoftheirlibraries.Passage7Thewaterlevelofoceansrisesandfallsalternatelytwiceaday.Thismovementofwateriscalledthetide.Tidesarecausedbythepullofthesunandthemoonontheearthssurfacesincethemooniscloser,itaffectsthetidesmorethanthesun.Whenthemoonisdirectlyoverhead,itactuallypullsonthewaterthatisbelowit.Thiscausesthewaterleveltorisebecausethewaterispulledawayfromtheearth.Asthemoondisappearsoverthehorizon,thepulllessensandthewaterlevelsettlesbacktowardstheoceanbottom..Whenthewaterreachesitshighestlevel,wehavehightide.Andwhenthewatercomestoitslowestlevel,wehavelowtide.Fromitslowestpoint,thewaterrisesgraduallyforaboutsixhoursuntilitreacheshightide.Thenitbeginstofallcontinuouslyforaboutsixhoursuntilitreacheslowtide.Thenthecyclebeginsagain.1.WhichofthefollowingmaybethebesttitleforthepassageBA.TheMoonandOceanB.TheMoonandtheTideC.WaterLevelsD.ThePulloftheMoonandtheSun2.Thepullofthemoonontheearthssurfaceisstrongerthanthatofthesunbecause____C_______.A.themoonisdirectlyovertheearthB.themoonpullsthewaterawayfromtheearthC.themoonisclosertotheearthD.themoonmovesaroundtheearth3.Waterlevelreachesitslowpointwhen_________C________.A.themoonishiddenbycloudsB.themoonseffectisindirectC.themoonmovesfarawayD.thesunisoverhead4.Hightideoccurs___A__.A.every12hoursB.every6hoursC.every24hoursD.every18hours5.Accordingtothepassage,whichofthefollowingstatementsistrueDA.Weathersometimesaffectstides.B.Theforcedirectlyaffectingtheearthssurfacecomesfromthemoononly.C.Theeffectofthesunontheoceanwatercanbeneglected.D.Tidesaretheresultofthepullofthemoonandthesun.Passage8Themovementforblackcivilrightsgrewlargerandmorepopular.InAugust1963,250,000peopleattendedapeacefuldemonstrationinWashington,D.C..ItwasthelargestdemonstrationinthehistoryoftheU.S.untilthen.Atthedemonstration,MartinLutherKinggavehisfamousIhaveaDreamspeech.Inthespeech,hedemandedjusticeforblackpeopleanddescribedtheUnitedStatesofhisdream,acountrywhereblacksandwhiteswouldbeequalandwhereonedayblacksandwhiteswouldliveinpeacetogether.ThespeechmadeDr.KingfamousintheU.S.andallovertheworld.Blackpeoplebegantoaccepthimastheirnationalleader.Moderatewhitepeoplefinallyunderstoodtheneedforchangeandbegantosupporthisdemandsforequalrightsforallcitizensregardlessoftheirrace.In1964,Dr.KingwontheNobelPeacePrizeforhisworkinthenonviolent不诉诸暴力的struggleforequalrights.Inthenextfewyears,Dr.KingcontinuedtoprotestagainstthetreatmentofblacksintheU.S..Theprotestsledtoanumberofchangesinthelaw,changeswhichshowedthatthegovernmentfinallywasseriousaboutequalrightsforeveryone.In1963,thefederalgovernmentusedsoldierstoregisterblackstudentsatthesegregated实行种族隔离政策的UniversityofAlabama.In1964,thefirstCivilRightsActwaspassed.Itgavethefederalgovernmentthepowertoendsegregationeverywhere.In1965,theVotingRightsActgavethegovernmentthepowertoregisterblackvoters.In1968,thesecondCivilRightsActmadediscriminationinhousingandemploymentillegal.1.WhatisthebesttitleforthepassageAA.MartinLutherKing,NobelPrizeWinner.B.MartinLutherKing,AdvocateofViolence.C.TheNeedtoChangeDiscriminatoryLaws.D.TheEffectivenessofNonviolentMethodsAdvocatedbyMartinLutherKing.2.ItcanbeinferredfromthepassagethatDr.Kingcontinuedhisnonviolentmethodsbecause___A____.A.theywereeffectiveB.theywerelegalinWashington,D.C.C.mostpeoplewereafraidofviolenceD.mostpeoplebelievedthathewouldreceivetheNobelPeacePrize3.Accordingtothepassage,asaconsequenceofhisprotests,Dr.Kingbecame___C____.A.disappointedathiseffortsB.peacefulinhisstrategy兵法策略C.famousintheworldD.successfulinhisprofessionalcareer4.Accordingtothepassage,In1963thefederalgovernment_____B____.A.begantoadmitblackpeopleintoitsarmyB.allowedblackstudentstoenterUniversityofAlabamaC.orderedblacksoldierstogotoUniversityofAlabamaD.gavetheAmericanblacksequalrightsinemployment5.Theworddiscriminationinthelastsentenceofthepassagemeans_B__.A.equalfightsB.treatingdifferentlyC.racialsegregationD.registeringblackpeoplePassage9Ifyouencounteradifficultyinyourstudies,firsttrytosortthingsoutforyourself.Forexample,thinkabouttheproblem,lookatyourlecturenotesonthesubjectandatappropriatepartsoftextbooksandothersourcesofinformation.Askotherstudentstoseeiftheycanexplain.Takeopportunitiestoaskquestionsinclass,particularlyintutorialandpracticalclasses.Mostlecturersaskforquestionsinthelastminutesofalecture,andarepleasedtospeaktostudentsprivatelyimmediatelyafteraclasseithertodealwithanyminordifficultyquicklyortoarrangeanappointmentatamutuallyconvenienttime.Similarly,othermembersoftheacademicstaffarelikelytobeavailableforconsultationintheirofficeduringnormalworkinghours.Withexperienceyouwillfindwhenisthebesttimetocallor,ifnecessary,howtomakeanappointment.Youshouldfeelabletoaskyouracademicadviserortutor,oranyothermemberoftheacademicstaffwhomyoufindhelpfulandsympathetic,forhelpingwithanystudyproblem,orwithanypersonalproblemthatcouldstandinthewayofeffectivestudy.1.Whatdoesthephrasesort...outmeaninthefirstsentenceDA.arrangeingroupsB.separatethingsofonesortfromthingsofothersortsC.putingoodorderD.solve2.Whenyouencounteradifficultyinyourstudies,youshouldnt___B___.A.lookatlecturenotesB.takealaissezfaireattitude/giveupC.lookatothersourcesofinformationD.askquestionsinclass3.Thestudentshadbetternotaskquestions___C_____.A.duringalectureB.afteraclassC.tootherteachersintheirofficeduringnormalworkinghoursD.atamutuallyconvenienttime4.WhatdoesthewordtutormeaninthepassageCA.privateteacherB.schoolmasterC.theteacherwhoguidesthestudiesofanumberofstudentsD.coach5.Inthepassagetheauthoradvisesyou__C___inyoureffectivestudy.A.askotherstudentsforhelpB.askquestionsintutorialclassesC.askacademicadviserontutorforhelpwithanypersonalproblemD.solvetheproblemsofstudiesforyourselfPassage10Thegoldenruleforgoodwritingisnotaruleofgrammar.Itistruethattherearerulesofgrammar,asinmusictherearerulesofharmony,andthattheyareimportant,butonecannomorewritegoodEnglishmerelybykeepingtheserulesthanonecancomposegoodmusic.Thegoldenruleforgoodwritingconcernsnotmerelythearrangementofwordsbutthechoiceofthem.Onlytherightwordscanconveytherightmeaningthesecretistopickthosewordsandtousethemonly.Fortherightwordshaveahappyknackacleverwayofarrangingthemselvesforyou.But,first,youmusthavesomethingtosay.MathewArnoldoncesaidHavesomethingtosayandsayitasclearlyasyoucan.Thatistheonlysecretofstyle.Thereismuchtruthinthosewords,especiallyinrelationtothesortofwritingwhereemotionalappealplaysapart.WecanturntothememberofthestaffoftheGeneralPostOfficewhobycomposingthenoticePostalofficialsareneitherboundtogivechangenorauthorizedtodemandit.usedthirteenwordshardlylessefficientlytowarncustomersofwhatmusthaveoftenbeenadifficultsituation.Everywordsisexactlyrightnootherwordwoulddoaswelleachispullingitsweightnonecouldbedispensedwith.AswassaidofMiltonsproseFewerwordsnothaveservedthetrue,morewouldhavebeensuperfluous.1.Theauthorspurposeistopersuadeusthatinordertowritewell,weshouldD.A.studycarefullythestyleofwritingB.knowtherulesofgrammarwellC.watchthearrangementsofwordsinoursentencesD.knowwhatwewanttosayandchoosetherightwords2.ThewordsuperfluousinMiltonsproseisclosestinmeaningtoD.A.essentialB.adequateC.outofplaceD.morethanisneeded3.OnecannotcomposegoodmusicifheC.A.knowsasmanyrulesofharmonyasthoseofgrammarB.knowstheruleswellC.merelystickstotherulesD.cannotchoosetherightrulesandwords4.TheauthormentionstheunknownofficialasexamplebecauseC.A.everyoneusesthepostofficeB.hewantstomakefunofthepostofficeC.hebelievesitcansupporthisviewD.hechoosesitatrandom5.Accordingtothepostofficenoticeinthepassage,acustomerAA.canexpecttobeturnedawayifheoffersapoundforashillingtelegramB.cangiveanofficialatenpoundnoteforonepoundstampsandexpectchangeC.willbegivenchangeifitisconvenientD.withinsufficientmoneytopayforwhathewantsmayexpecttobegivencreditPassage11Insmalltownsandbigcities,childrenwithnameslikeOswaldoSuong,BorisorNgamareswellingthenamelistsinU.S.publicschools,sittingsidebysidewithDickandJane.Immigrationinthe1980sbroughtabout9millionforeignbornpeopletotheUnitedStates,slightlymorethanthegreatwaveof8.8millionimmigrantsthatcamebetween1901and1910.Asaresultatleast5percentofthechildrenhavelimitedabilityinEnglish.InsevenstatesincludingColorado,NewMexico,NewYorkandTexas,25percentormoreofthestudentsarenotnativeEnglishspeakers.Asaresult,saysEugeneGarcia,aprofessoroftheUniversityofCalifornia,thereisnoeducationtopicofgreatimportancetoday.HowtoteachinaschoolofsomanydifferentlanguagesspeakersManyareasrespondbyexplainingthetwolanguageeducationprograms.Intheseclasses,studentsaretaughtsubjectslikesocialstudies,scienceandmathintheirnativelanguageonthetheorythatchildrenmustdevelopafirmbasisintheirnativelanguagebeforetheycanlearnschoolsubjectsinanewlanguage.Educatorssaythatevenwithtwolanguageeducation,ittakesbetweenfourandsevenyearsforanonnativetoreachnationallevelsonordinarytestsofmostsubjectmaterial.1.Accordingtothepassage,inthe1980sD.A.morethanonefourthofthestudentscouldntspeakEnglishB.8.8millionchildrenintheU.S.immigrantattendpublicschoolsC.4percentormoreoftheAmericanchildrenarenotatschoolD.9millionimmigrantscametotheUnitedStates2.Thewordswellingline1,paragraph.1canbereplacedbyA.A.increasingB.decreasingC.spellingD.showing3.ThesentencethereisnoeducationtopicofgreaterimportancetodaymeansB.A.educationisnolongerthemostimportanttopicintheU.SB.howtoteachthoseimmigrantchildrenisoftheimportanceineducationC.educationismoreimportantthananythingelseintheU.S.D.Immigrationwaveisthemostimportanttopictoday4.ThoseimmigrantchildrenintheAmericanpublicschoolsD.A.takeEnglishlessonsrightaftertheyareadmittedB.begintheirsubjectstudyinEnglishC.learntwolanguagesbeforethesubjectsaretaughtD.aremadetoimprovetheirnativelanguagefirst5.ThebesttitleforthispassageisD.A.AmericanSchoolsNewProblemsB.U.S.A.ANewWaveofImmigrationC.U.S.A.ACrisisinEducationD.AmericanSchoolsTooManyForeignStudentsPassage12AdamSmith,writinginthe1770s,wasthefirstpersontoseetheimportanceofthedivisionoflabourandtoexplainpartofitsadvantages.HegivesasanexampletheprocessbywhichpinsweremadeinEngland.Onemandrawsoutthewire,anotherstrengthensit,athirdcutsit,afourthpointsit,afifthgrindsitatthetoptoprepareittoreceivethehead.Tomaketheheadrequirestwoorthreedistinctoperations.Toputitonisaseparateoperation,topolishthepinsisanother.Andtheimportantbusinessofmakingpinsis,inthismanner,dividedintoabouteighteendistinctoperations,whichinsomefactoriesandallperformedbydifferentpeople,thoughinothersthesamemanwillsometimesperformtwoorthreeofthem.Tenmen,Smithsaid,inthisway,turnedouttwelvepoundsofpinsadayorabout4,800pinsapiece.Butifallofthemhadworkedseparatelyandindependentlywithoutdivisionoflabour,theycertainlycouldnoteachofthemhavemadetwentypinsinadayandperhapsnotevenone.Therecanbenodoubtthatdivisionoflabourisanefficientwayoforganizingwork.Fewerpeoplecanmakemorepins.AdamSmithsawthisbuthealsotookitforgrantedthatdivisionoflabourisinitselfresponsibleforeconomicgrowthanddevelopmentandthatitaccountsforthedifferencebetweenexpandingeconomiesandthosethatstandstill.Butdivisionoflabouraddsnothingnewitonlyenablespeopletoproducemoreofwhattheyalreadyhave.1.Accordingtothepassage,AdamSmithwasthefirstpersontoC.A.takeadvantageofthedivisionoflabourB.introducethedivisionoflabourintoEnglandC.understandtheeffectsofthedivisionoflabourD.explainthecausesofthedivisionoflabour2.AdamSmithsawthatthedivisionoflabourB.A.enabledeachworkertomakepinsmorequicklyandmorecheaplyB.increasedthepossibleoutputperworkerC.increasedthenumberofpeopleemployedinfactoriesD.improvedthequalityofpinsproduced3.AdamSmithmentionedthenumber4,800inordertoA.A.showtheadvantagesofthedivisionoflabourB.showtheadvantagesoftheoldcraftsystemC.emphasizehowpowerfultheindividualworkerwasD.emphasizetheimportanceofincreasedproduction4.Accordingtothewriter,AdamSmithsmistakewasinbelievingthatdivisionoflabourC.A.wasanefficientwayoforganizingworkB.wasanimportantdevelopmentinmethodsofproductionC.inevitablyledtoeconomicdevelopmentD.increasedtheproductionofexistinggoods5.WhichofthefollowingcouldserveasanappropriatetitleforthepassageDA.AdamSmith,theEnglishEconomistB.TheTheoryofDivisionofLabourC.DivisionofLabour,anEfficientWayofOrgaizingWorkD.AdamSmithastheDiscovererofDivisionofLabour.Ⅴ.TranslationfromChineseintoEnglish1、离开房间时请关灯。Turnoffthelightbeforelivingtheroom.2、听到这个消息,他们立即出发去火车站。Hearingthenewstheyleavetothestationatonce.3、纳税是每个公民应尽的义务。Itseverycitizensobligationtopayduty.4、直到读了你的报告我才了解到事实的真相。Iwasnotrealizedthetruthuntilhavereadyoureport.5、近几年,机器人的应用越来越广泛和深入。Robotshavebeenusedwiseranddeeperduringrecentyears.6、随着现代交通的发展,世界似乎变得越来越小。Withthedevelopmentoftransportation,worldseemstobecomemoresmaller.7、许多人都关心野生动物的保护。Manypeoplearecaringtheprotectionofwildanimals.8、孩子常常喜欢模仿电视节目中看到的行为。Childrenareliketomockthebehaviors,whattheysawintheTVprogram9、她努力将心理学的一些原理应用于英语学习。ShetriestoapplysomepsychologyprinciplestoEnglishstudy.10、有经验的人能够立即辨别出来哪个是真的。Experiencedpeoplecanimmediatelytellthegenuineone.11、为什么你容忍他们所犯的这些罪行呢Whycanyouendurethecommitstheyhavedone.12、在外语学习中没有捷径可走。Therearenoswiftcuts.13、科学的快速发展促使许多企业探求新的出路。Theswiftdevelopmentofsciencehasmademanyenterprisestoexplorenewsways.14、是计算机使我们得以解决这样复杂的问题。Itstheusesofcomputerthatmadeitpossibletoresolvethesesophisticated.15、他的成就为他赢得了尊敬和钦佩。Hissuccesswasrespectandadmireforhim.16、每次这个节目演出,都引发全国对这个问题的辩论。Everytimethisprogramperformanceithasreleaseddebatesonsuchissuealloverthecountry.17、人们普遍相信每个词都有正确的词义。Itscommonlybelievedthateverywordhasitscorrectmean.18、他们发现要掌握一门外语是困难的。Theyfinditisdifficultytomasteraforeignlanguage.19、我们愿意帮助我们的朋友。Wearewillingtohelpourfriend.20、人们常把学校看成一个小社会。Peopleoffertreatschoolasasmallsociety.湖南自考网http//www.zikao.hn.cn/Ⅵ.TranslationfromEnglishintoChinesePassage1Smallasitis,thepenhaschangedthecourseofhistory,shapedthedestinyofnations,facilitatedthecommerceofpeoples,recordedevents,carriednews,anddonemoreworkofformankindthanallothertoolsorweapons.Inthepastthependidallthework.Forallwritingintendedtolastforanylengthoftimewasvalidonlyifwrittenwithpenandink.Themorefamouslettersintheworldwerewrittenwithapenanditwaswithapenthatthegreatestthinkersofalltimewrotedowntheirthoughts.Todaythepenismorehighlyvaluedthanever.Wecannotsignacheckorwritealetterorbuyahousewithoutourpen.Theeditorstirstheworldwithit,thestudentwouldfailtopasshisexaminationwithoutit.Thenexttimewhenwetakeupourpentowrite,letsrememberthatweholdinourhandthemostpowerfulinstrumentmankindpossesses.小小的笔已经改变了历史的进程,塑造了国家的命运,方便了人们的交流,记录事件,记载新闻,而且比其他的工具和武器对人类所做的贡献都要多.在过去,笔做了所有的事情,只有利用笔和墨,所有的作品才能保存任意长的时间,用笔写下世界上越多著名的字母,则所有时期最伟大的思想家就能用一支笔写下他们的思想.今天,笔比以往有了更高的使用价值,我们填写支票,写信,买房子,不能没有笔,编辑用笔看世界,学生没有笔就不能通过考试.下次当我们用笔写字时,让我们记住我们手握着人类历史进程中最有力的工具吧Passage2Americans,likemanypeopleelsewhereintheworld,liketoinvitepeopletotheirhomesforaneveningoffood,drinkandconversation.FormaldinnersinfinehomesandhotelsintheUnitedStatesaremuchthesameasformaldinnersanywhereintheworld.ButasmostpeopleintheUnitedStateshavenoservants,theirdinnerpartiesathomearedecidedlyinformal.Guestsmaysitdownatatable,or,asmanynewsmallhomeshavenoseparatediningroomorverysmalldiningspace,guestscanalsoservethemselvesandeatinthelivingroom,holdingtheirplatesortraysontheirknees.Amoreenjoyableformofentertainmentisthepicnic.Americansaregreatpicnickers,andalmosteveryfamilyhasapicnicbasket.Summerinvitationsareoftenforapicnicataparkorintheopencountryside.Unlesshamburgersorhotdogsarecookedoverafire,picnicfoodisusuallycoldsandwiches,salads,potatochips,andpickles.Watermelonisafavoritedessert,followedveryoftenbybaseballfortheyoungandactive,andnapsfortheweary.和许多世界上其他人一样,美国人也喜欢邀请别人去家晚宴吃饭,饮酒和聊天.在好的家里和饭店中的正餐和世界上其他的正餐很相似,但是,在美国的大多数人的正餐中没有服务员,他们家中的晚宴是非正式的,客人可以坐在桌子上,或者当一些小家中没有单独的餐厅或餐厅很小时,客人可以自便或在起居室进餐,将盘子和刀叉放在他们的膝盖上.一个更有取的休闲方式是野餐,美国人是伟大的野餐者,大多数家庭都有一个用于野餐的篮子.夏季的邀请大多是去公园或在空旷的乡村野炊,如果汉堡包或热狗没有在火上烤熟的话,野餐的事物则经常是冰三维治,沙拉,土豆条和泡菜.西瓜是最受欢迎的餐后甜点.活跃的年轻人打会儿篮球,再小睡一会儿.Passage3Weallknowthatscienceplaysanimportantroleinthesocietiesinwhichwelive.Manypeoplebelieve,however,thatourprogressdependsontwodifferentaspectsofscience.Thefirstoftheseistheapplicationofthemachines,productsandsystemsofappliedknowledgethatscientistsandtechnologistsdevelop.Throughtechnology,sciencehelpsmantogainincreasingcontroloverhisenvironment.Thesecondaspectistheapplicationbyallmembersofsocietyofthespecialmethodsofthoughtandactionthatscientistsuseintheirwork.我们都知道科学在我们生活的这个社会起了很大的作用,然而许多人都认为我们的进步是依靠科学的两个方面的作用所取得的,第一即科学家和技术人员所创造和知识在机器上的运用,通过科学技术,人类能更好的征服自然环境第二像科学家一样运用社会所有成员的聪明才智.Passage4IarrivedinLondonatlast.Therailwaystationwasbig,blackanddark.Ididnotknowthewaytomyhotel,soIaskedaporter.InotonlyspokeEnglishverycarefully,butveryclearlyaswell.Theporter,however,couldnotunderstandme.Irepeatedmyquestionseveraltimesandatlastheunderstood.Heansweredme,buthespokeneitherslowlynorclearly.Iamaforeigner,Isaid.Thenhespokeslowly,butIcouldnotunderstandhim.MyteacherneverspokeEnglishlikethatTheporterandIlookedateachotherandsmiled.ThenhesaidsomethingandIunderstoodit.YoullsoonlearnEnglishhesaid.Iwonder.InEngland,eachmanspeaksadifferentlanguage.TheEnglishunderstandeachother,butIdontunderstandthemDotheyspeakEnglish我终于到达伦敦,火车站又大有黑又灰暗,我不知道如何去我的旅馆,只好去问一个搬运工.我很细心且清楚的用英语询问,但是他却听不懂,我重复了几次我的问题,最后他终于听懂了,给了我回答,但他的回答即不慢也不清楚,我是个外国人我说.然后,他慢慢的说,但我却不能理解他的意思.我的老师从来不像他那样说英语,他和我互视一笑,然后,他说了一些话,我听懂了,你应该尽快学英语他说,我迷惑了,在英国,每个人都能说不同的英语,英国人都能够相互理解对方的语言,而我都不能理解他们难道他们说的不是英语吗装订线内不要答题,装订线外不要写姓名、考号、工作单位,违者试卷作0分处理○○○○○○
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