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外文翻译--阀控式铅酸蓄电池的失效模式在深放电电动自行车的应用 英文版.pdf外文翻译--阀控式铅酸蓄电池的失效模式在深放电电动自行车的应用 英文版.pdf -- 5 元

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JournalofPowerSources1912009127–133ContentslistsavailableatScienceDirectJournalofPowerSourcesjournalhomepagewww.elsevier.com/locate/jpowsourFailuremodesofvalveregulatedleadacidapplicationsindeepdischargeYjunaChinabarticleArticleRRAAKCyElectricFSofValedorlightdbycauseratherationatiesthe1Inthelasttwodecades,muchefforthasbeendevotedtothestudyofvalveregulatedleadacidVRLAbatteriesintheapplicationsofelectricvehiclesEVandhybridEVs1–5.InChina,thereisapopulationofmorethan1.3billion.MostpeoplegotoworkbybicyyelectricapacusethetillVRLofdeandmarofincludingsulfplatecontact,etc.,theyvarywithdifferentdesigns,manufacturingandoperatingconditions7–15.Inthedeepcycleduty,theinterfaceofthegrid/activemasseasilyaccumulatestheleadsulfatecrystalswithveryhighresistanceandformsabarrierlayerwhenPb–SballoysinthepositivegridaresubstitutedbyPb–Cd–Sn–Al03doicleand65.5millionbicycleswereproducedin2007.Inrecentears,however,moreandmorepeopleuseelectricbicyclesorlightscooterstosubstituteforbicycles.Thesenewvehicleshave250or350Welectromotordrivenbya36or48VVRLAbatteryk,respectively5,6.Basedonthepoweroftheelectromotord,thebatterycapacityis12V10,17or20Ah.Theheldamountofelectricbicyclesandlightelectricscootersatleastreaches60Mtheendoflastyear.Itcorrespondstoabout200M12V/10AhAbatteries,oraboutRBM26billion.Thepracticaloperatinglifebatteriesisnormallyintherangeof1–2years.WiththerapidvelopmentofChineseorAsianeconomy,moreelectricbicyclestheirbatterieswillbeneededandtheyhaveahugepotentialketinthecomingyears,whichalsopromotesthedevelopmentEV.AlthoughtherearemanyfailuremodesofVRLAbatteries,prematurecapacitylossPCL,gridcorrosion,softening,∗Correspondingauthor.Tel.8659187892893fax8659188073608.Emailaddressyguofzu.edu.cnY.Guo.alloys.ItiscalledtheantimonyfreeeffectandthePCL1failuremode7,8.AlthoughthebarrierlayercanbeobviouslyimprovedwiththeapplicationofSncontentmorethan1.2wt.,itissusceptibletotheabuseconditionssuchasdeepdischarge.SomostmanufacturersinChinausePb–Sb–Cdalloysaspositivegrid.However,Cdispoisonousandmustbeexcluded.Thecorrosionofpositivegridsinthecycledutyisnotheavyascomparedwiththatinthefloatapplications.ThehighcontentsofCaandAlacceleratethecorrosionrateofpositivegridsgreatly,althoughtheyhavegoodmechanicalpropertiesandcastability.TheactivemassAMofpositiveplatesundergoesgreatvolumeexpansionandshrinkageinthedeepcycleduty,whichcanleadtopoorcontactbetweenAMparticles8,9.ThisisthePCL2failuremodeoftentakingplaceintheEVbatteries.Itcanbegreatlyimprovedbycompressingtheplatestack,optimizingthemanufacturetechnologyofpositiveplatesandincreasingtheratioofpositivetonegativeAM.TheserioussulfationofnegativeplatesoftenoccurswhenthebatteryoperatesatthehighratesinapartialstateofchargeHRPSoCorhasahighcurrentofoxygenrecombinationorwhentheadditivesatnegativeplatesaredecomposedunderthehightemperaturecondition1,10,11.Itwillbeovercomewiththeuseofhighcontentgraphite787753/–seefrontmatter©2008ElsevierB.V.Allrightsreserved.10.1016/j.jpowsour.2008.08.059onglangGuoa,∗,ShengqunTanga,GangMengb,ShiCollegeofChemistryandChemicalEngineering,FuzhouUniversity,Fuzhou350108,PRHubeiCamelStorageBatteryCo.Ltd.,Gucheng441705,PRChinainfohistoryeceived26June2008eceivedinrevisedform20August2008ccepted21August2008vailableonline29August2008eywordsclelifebicycleailuremodesteningveregulatedleadacidbatteriesabstractThe36or48VvalveregulatsourcesofelectricbicyclesbatterieshavebeenstudieItindicatesthatthemainpositiveactivemassPAMWhentheelectrolytesaturthedepolarizationofthenegoxygenevolutionaccelerat.IntroductionbatteriesforelectricbicycleYangbleadacidVRLAbatterypackshavebeenwidelyappliedtothepowerelectricscootersinChina.Thefailuremodesofthe12V/10AhVRLAthecyclelifetestatC2dischargerateand100depthofdischargeDOD.ofthebatteryfailureinthiscycledutyisthesofteningandsheddingofthanindividualwaterloss,recombinationefficiencyorsulfation,etc.fallstoacertainextent,thehighoxygenrecombinationcurrentleadstoveplateandtheshiftofthepositiveplatetoahigherpotential.TheviolentsofteningofPAMandtheendofcyclelife.©2008ElsevierB.V.Allrightsreserved.ation,dryingout,additivedecompositionandpoorseparator128Y.Guoetal./JournalofPowerSources1912009127–133innegativeactivemassNAM12.Dryingoutismostlyconnectedwithahighchargevoltageandcurrent,oftenincombinationwithhighbatterytemperature.Intheextremecases,thermalrunawaymaytakeplaceforabatterywithverylowelectrolytesaturation.Waterlossdependsonthegridcompositions,impurities,batterytemperatureandchargevoltage8.Thesuitablechargeregimeincludingfastchargeisveryimportantforprolongingthebatterycyies,andar2erstrcurrbicyimVRLcy2.poseglasswSn–0.0containedensitiesing.HductdiscIn1agagthewhentwiththepoPtmicr3.3.batttheir28ththat,60abouting,ttFig.1.Evolutionofdischargecapacityoftwobatteriesinthecyclesat100DOD.currentandbatteryvoltageatthecurrentlimitedconstantvoltageinthecyclelifetest.Inthefirstconstantcurrentstage2.5A,theconstantcurrenttimeinFig.2Ashortenswiththecycles.Itisduetothegradualfallingofthebatterycapacity.TherisingofthechargevoltageinFig.2Bindicatestheincreaseofthebatterypolarizationresistanceduetowaterlossandbatterydegeneration,etc.Inthesecondconstantvoltagestage14.4V,thechargecurrentdropsFig.2.ThechangesofAchargecurrentandBchargevoltageatthecurrentlimitedconstantvoltageindifferentcycles.clelife13.Forthepracticeoperatingofelectricbicyclebattertheirdischargecurrentdependsontheelectromotorpowertheacceleratingprocesses.Thecutoffvoltageis10.5V.TheyenormallychargedatacurrentlimitedconstantvoltageCCCVA/14.8Vforonenight,twoorthreetimesperweek.Somechargalsousethemultistepconstantcurrentcharge.Inthestandardest,however,theelectricbicyclebatteriesaredischargedata2hateto70or100depthofdischargeDODandchargedattheentlimitedconstantvoltage.AlthoughtheVRLAbatterieshavebeenwidelyusedinelectriccle,theircyclelifeandperformancestillneedtobefurtherproved.Inthiswork,themanufacturetechnologiesof12V/10AhAbatterieswereoptimizedandthefailuremodesinthedeepcledutywereinvestigated.ExperimentalThetestbatterywas12V/10AhC2rateVRLAbatteriescomdofsevenpositiveandeightnegativeplatesandtheabsorptivematAGMseparator.ThepositiveandnegativegridserePb–0.065Ca–1.2Sn–0.003AlandPb–0.085Ca–0.3515Alalloys,respectively.Thepositiveandnegativepastesd45and42gH2SO4perkgleadpowder.Theirapparentwere4.3–4.4gcm−3.Ittook48hfortheircuringanddryThenthebatterieswereassembledandfilledwith1.25gcm−32SO4containing1.5Na2SO4.Thecontainerformationwasconedbythemultistepconstantcurrentchargeregimewithtwohargestepswithin70h.Thebatteryweightwasabout4.25kg.thecycletest,thebatteriesweredischargedat5AC2rateto0.5V100DODandchargedatacurrentlimitedconstantvolteof2.5A/14.4Vfor6h,followedbychargingat0.8Afor1hainatambienttemperatureofabout25◦C.Thespecificenergyofbatteryreaches32.6Whkg−1.Thecyclingtestwasterminatedthebatterycapacityfellto7Ah70ratecapacity.Inorderomeasurethebatteryinternalresistance,ashortcurrentpulse5Aand1mswasexertedbyArbinBT2000instruments.Aftercyclelifetest,thebatteriesweretorndownandanalyzed.ThewderXraydiffractionXRDofpositiveandnegativeactivemassAMandNAMwerecarriedoutbyaXPertProMPDDiffractomeerPhilips.TheirappearancewasobservedbyascanningelectronoscopeSEM,Philips,XL30ESEMTEP.Resultsanddiscussion1.CycletestsFig.1showsthedependenceofthedischargecapacityoftwoeriesoncyclenumberatC2dischargerate.Intheinitialcycles,capacityincreasesandreachesthemaximum,11.55Ah,inthecycle.Thenitdecreasesgraduallybeforethe250thcycle.Afteritbecomesrelativelystable,butitdropsquicklyafteraboutthe0thcycle.ThecyclelifeofbatteryAandBissimilarandreaches680cycles.Sinceinvariousfailuremodes,thegridcorrosion,PAMsoftendryingout,sulfationorundercharge,etc.arecloselyrelatedothebatterycharge,thechargeregimeaffectsthecyclelifeoftheestbatteriesgreatly16–18.Fig.2showsthechangesofthechargeY.Guoetal./JournalofPowerSources1912009127–133129Fig.3.Evolutionsofchargecurrentat6handchargevoltageat7hinFig.2.quicklyandreachesverysmallvalue.However,thetailcurrentat6hbeginstoincreaseobviouslyafteraboutthe400thcycleanditsdetailevolutionisshowninFig.3.Atthefinalstageofchargeat0.8A,Fig.2Bshowsthatthechargevoltageatfirstincreasesandthendecreasesasthecycletestproceeds.Theturningpointappearsaboutinthe50thcycleandthechargevoltagereaches16.68V.Thenthemaximumchargevoltagedecreasesgraduallywiththeelectrolyteconsumptionorthedecreaseoftheelectrolytesaturation,whic5meansandconssccizationc0.hascurrandFcFig.5.Thechangesofvoltageandcurrentwhenthethreefailedcellswerechargedbeforeandafteraddingwater.Fig.6.Thevoltagefallingofthreecellsduringtheshelfafteraddingwaterandafewcycles.hleadstothedepolarizationofthenegativeplate.Afterthe70thcycle,themaximumchargevoltageislowerthan14.40V.ItthatsuchlowpolarizationmayresultintheunderchargetheaccumulationofPbSO4atthenegativeplate.Fig.3showsdependenceofthechargecurrentattheendoftantvoltage6hinFig.2Aandthevoltageattheendofcontantcurrent7hinFig.2Bonthecyclenumber.Inpractice,thishargecurrentresponsestotherateofoxygenrecombinationorhargeefficiencyandthechargevoltageresponsestothepolaroreffectivecharge.ItisfoundfromFig.3thatthebatteryhargevoltageisveryhighandthechargecurrentincreasesfrom12to0.39Aintheinitial50cycles.Itindicatesthatthebatteryhighelectrolytesaturationandverylowoxygenrecombinationentinthisperiod.Thenthechargevoltagedropsveryquicklyisstabilizedintherangeof14.6–15.0Vtillthe400thcycle,ig.4.Thechangesofthebatteryinternalresistanceattheendofchargeanddishargeinthecycles.Fig.7.Thechangesoftheinternalresistanceinthechargeanddischargeofthreecellsbeforeandafteraddingwater.130Y.Guoetal./JournalofPowerSources1912009127–133Fig.8.ThephotographsoftheplatestackanditspositiveandnegativeplatesoffailedbatteryA.andthechargecurrentliesintherangeof0.211–0.388A.Thisisarelativelyidealcycleprocess,inwhichtherelativelyhighvoltagenotonlyensuresthefullchargeandbutalsonomorewaterlossoccurs.Afterthat,especiallythe600thcyclelater,thechargecurrentatconstantvoltagestageincreasesrapidlywhilethechargevoltagedecreasegraduallyfrom14.68to14.09V.Inthisstage,theelectrolytesaturationonlydecreasesby1.2from88.2to87.0inabout250cycles.KirchevandPavlov19foundthattheliquidfilmthicknessonthesurfaceofNAMandoxygenrecombinationratechangesharplywhentheelectrolytesaturationislowerthanabout87.Atthistime,therefore,onlyalittledecreaseoftheelectrolytesaturationwillresultinveryhighoxygenrecombinationcurrentandthedepolarizationofthenegativeplate.Andthebatteryunderchargemayoccur.Italsoindicatesthatthebatteryisdifficulttobefullychargedat14.6Vfor7hchargetime,whichwillleadtotheobviousdegradationofthebatteriesinthesubsequentcycles.Thebatteryinternalresistanceisrelatedtothebatterystructure,electrolytesaturation,gridcorrosion,contactbetweenPAMparticles,passivation,AMsulfationandreactionarea,etc.Sincetheinternalresistanceissmallforanewornormallyoperatingbattery,thechangesofthebatteryinternalresistanceattheendofchargeanddischargeweremeasuredonlyinthelaterhalfofcyclelifetestandshowninFig.4.ThedischargeresistanceisaboutfourFig.9.ThetorndownAGMseparatorfromthefailedbattery.
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