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外文翻译计算机辅助过程规划管理信息基础薄板.doc外文翻译计算机辅助过程规划管理信息基础薄板.doc

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附录2——外语翻译(原文)ComputeraidedprocessplanningforsheetmetalbasedoninformationmanagementD.Lutters*,E.tenBrinke,A.H.Streppel,H.J.J.KalsLaboratoryofProductionandDesignEngineering,UniversityofTwente,POBox217,7500AEEnschede,NetherlandsAbstractDuringthelastfewyears,attentioninthemanufacturingcyclehasshiftedtowardsconcurrentengineering(CE).Withthis,theintegrationofthedifferentproductlifecycleprocesseshasbecomeafocusinbothresearchandindustry.However,itisobviousthattheintegrationofallmanufacturingprocesses,takingintoaccountalllifecycleaspectsfrominitialfunctionalrequirementstofinaldisposal,ishardlyfeasibleinthetraditionalway.Inthispaper,theexecutionofthemanufacturingcyclebasedoninformationmanagementisexplainedbydescribingthedevelopmentofagenericarchitectureforcomputeraidedprocessplanning.Thisarchitectureiselaborateduponforthefieldofsheetmetalmanufacturinginasmallbatchpartenvironment.@2000ElsevierScienceS.A.Allrightsreserved.Keywords:Concurrentengineering;CAPP;Architecture1.IntroductionIntheresearchpresentedhere,itisadvocatedthatthesheerintegrationofmanufacturingprocesseswithintheproductlifecycleisinsuf®cienttoachievetrueintegratedproductdevelopment.Forthispurpose,themainfocusshouldbeontheinformationthatisappliedandgeneratedinthesemanufacturingprocesses.Iftheinformationoftheseparateprocessescanbemadeavailableduringtheentiredevelopmentcycle,itcanbethebasisforthecontroloftheentiremanufacturingcycle.Inordertotakefulladvantageofthemodi®edroleofinformationintheproductdevelopmentcycle,adifferentattitudewithrespecttothemanufacturingprocessesisrequired.Oneofthemaindifferencesis,thatthephasesinthemanufacturingprocessbecomeinstrumentaltotheinformationrequiredinthemanufacturingprocess.Thisimmediatelyimpliesthatprocessesinthemanufacturingcyclehavetobedefinedasgenericasmuchaspossible.Forexample,itbecomespracticabletointerchangesystemsdevelopedfordifferentproducttypes(prismatic,sheetmetal,etc.).Moreover,iftheinterfacesofthemutualsystemscanbedefinedadequately,thesesystemscanbecomeindependentmodules,thatareabletoperformtheirtaskswithoutbeingdependentonapredefined,sequentialscenario.A®rstprerequisiteforthisistheabilitytoeffectivelymanagetheinformationthatbecomesthebasisofthemanufacturingprocess.2.Informationmanagement2.1.ManufacturingengineeringreferencemodelInordertobeabletodealwithdifferentviewsonamanufacturingsystem,thesystemisintroducedbymeansofareferencemodel.Areferencemodelrepresentsasystemasanorganisationintermsofitsstructureofrelativelyindependent,interactingcomponents,andintermsofthegloballydefinedtasksofthesecomponents[2].ThemanufacturingengineeringreferencemodelproposedinthepresentcontextisshowninFig.1.Thismanufacturingengineeringreferencemodelisbasedonthemanufacturingplanning&controlreferencemodelintroducedbyArentsen[1].However,adaptationshavebeenmade,inordertoemphasizetheequivalentimportanceofproducts,ordersandresourcesintheentiremanufacturingcycle[4].Companymanagementisconcernedwiththecontrolofcustomerorders.Itisresponsibleforthestrategicdecisionsconcerningtherangeofproductswhichwillbeproducedandtheprocessesandresourceswhicharerequiredtothisend.Productengineeringreferstoalltheengineeringactivitiesrelatedtotheproductlifecycleofaspecifictypeofproduct.Itisconcernedwiththedesignanddevelopmentofaproducttypeanditsvariants,startingfromfunctionalrequirementsuptofinalrecycling/disposal.Orderengineeringaddressesthoseactivitiesthatrelateacustomerordertoaspecific(variantofa)product.Itisthetaskoforderengineeringtocomposeproductionordersandtodecidewhengivenbatchesofproductsmustbeprocessedandwithwhichresources.Theobjectiveoforderengineeringisthein-timeexecutionoftheproductionorders.Resourceengineeringreferstoall(lifecycle)aspectsoftheresources,requiredfortheexecutionoftheproductionactivities.Itthereforeincludesthespecification,design,development,acquisition,preparation,useandmaintenanceoftheresourcesofacompany.Productionisconcernedwiththeactualexecutionoftheplansgeneratedbytheengineeringtasks.Fromproduction,informationisfedbacktotheseengineeringtasks.Inthemanufacturingengineeringreferencemodel,informationmanagementisdiscernedasthekernel.Thisillustratestheopinionthattheavailabilityandaccessibilityofinformationispreferredoversheerdataexchange.2.2.InformationmanagementInrecognisingthefactthateachofthedepartmentsinacompanymakesmyriaddecisionsinordertogeneraterequiredinformation,itisobviousthatthereasoningbehindallthesedecisionscanhardlybetransferredtogetherwiththeinformation.Consequently,theneedforfeedbackandinterdepartmentalcommunicationincreases,whichmayleadtoextremelycomplexanduncontrollableflowsofinformationbetweentheseparatedepartments.However,providingthatinformationgeneratedbytheseparatedepartmentsisattachedtoanoverallandwidelyaccessiblemodel,thissituationmaychangeconsiderably.Inthiscase,insteadof`pushing'informationfromonedepartmenttoanother,departmentscan`pull'theinformationtheyrequireandaregivenaccessto.Hence,thefocuscanbeontheinformationinsupportofthecontrolofthemanufacturingprocesses,andforthisreason,thecourseofthemanufacturingprocessesmaybeguidedbytheuseof,andtheneedforinformation.Thetypesofobjectstheinformationisconcernedwith(orders,products,operators,etc.)canvaryconsiderably.Despitethisvariation,forthewaytheinformationisstructuredandattachedtoanoverallmodel,itisunimportantwhetherinformationbearsreferenceto,e.g.aproduct,amachineoritsoperator.Still,itisimportanttodistinguishbetweendifferenttypesofobjects,astheirdifferentsignificanceforthemanufacturingprocessesisapparent.Eachtypeofobjectcanbeattachedtoanoverallmodel,aso-calledinformationstructure.Inaccordancewiththethreepilesofthereferencemodel,threeoftheseinformationstructuresarediscerned(seeFig.2):●productinformationstructure;●orderinformationstructure;●resourceinformationstructure.Becausethestructuresevolveindependentlyofeachother,whereasthewayoftheirmutualinteractionsremainsthesame,theentirerangeofmanufacturingenvironmentscanbeaddressed:fromengineer-to-ordertomassproduction.Forexample,inanengineer-to-orderenvironment,theorderinformationstructureandtheproductinformationstructureevolvealmostsimultaneouslyandtheresourceinformationstructureremainsrelativelyunchanged.Inamassproductionenvironment,theproductinformationstructureandtheresourceinformationstructurearedevelopedconcurrentlyandremainratherstatichenceforth.Subsequently,theorderinformationstructureisusedtospecifythechoiceofacertainproductvariant,andtodeterminetheleadtimeandotherlogisticconsequences.Thedifferentbehaviouroftheinformationstructuresindifferentmanufacturingenvironmentsimpliesthateachofthestructureshasitsownlifecycle.Inaimingfortheintegrationofprocesses,thelifecyclesmustbeorientedontheinformationcontainedintheinformationstructures,insteadofontheprocessesconcernedwiththisinformation.Inelaboratingthisconceptfortheproductinformationstructure,theproductlifecycleisorientedupontheproductinsteadofonthemanufacturingprocesses.Inthisway,informationmanagementaspartofthereferencemodel,consistsofanintegratedcollectionoftasksthatcanbeusedasabasistoinitiate,accompany,controlandevaluateallthemanufacturingprocessesinastructuredandtransparentway.Thesetasksarebasedontheinformationcontainedinthethreeinformationstructures,asisshowninFig.2.
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