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Front.Mech.Eng.China20062173−176DOI10.1007/s1146500600204ZHANGJianmin,FANYu,JIADongyun,ZOUQiuling,WUYingKinematicsimulationofaparallelNCmachinetoolinthemanufacturingprocess©HigherEducationPressandSpringerVerlag2006AbstractAimedatenhancingtheresearchstatusofparallelmachinetools,thispaperintroducesthestructureofa6SPSparallelmachinetoolandexplainstheapplicationsignificanceofthekinematicsimulationofthemanufacturingprocess.ThesimulationsoftwarewasdevelopedinMicrosoftVisualC6.0usingOpenGLAPIfunctions.Thedataflowsarepresented.Finally,asimulationapplicationofoddleafhyperboloidisperformedbeforethemanufacturingprocessthekinematicsimulationdemonstratestherationaleoftraceplanningandthefeasibilityofmanufacturinginstruction.Keywordskinematicsimulation,parallelNCmachinetool,manufacturingprocess,traceplanning1IntroductionParallelNCmachinetool,alsoknownasvariedaxisNCmachinetool,virtualspindlemachinetool,andparallelrobot,isanovelnonlineartoolbasedonnonlinearStewartmechanismsanddiffersfromtraditionallineartools.Inthepastdecades,thetoolhasreceivedagreatdealofattentionfrommanyresearchers,anditsdevelopmentandapplicationshaveachievedmanyimprovements1,2.Duringthisperiod,thekinematicsimulationsystemofparallelNCmachinetoolshasalsobeendevelopedasapracticaltoolandplaysagreatroleinparallelmachinetooldesignandresearch.Kinematicsimulationhasnowbeenappliedinmanyaspectsoftooldesignforexample,itcanexplorethedimensionaltargetandsearchtheterminaledgeitcanalsocheckthevalidityoftraceplanning.Furthermore,thesafetyofthewhollyproducedunitcanbeensuredbyrealtimecheckingofthecollisionandinterferenceoftheNCmachinetool3.Therearemanyarticlesonthedevelopmentofasimulationsystem.Mostoftheseareconstructedonanexistingsimulationsystem,whichmakestheapplicationquickly,butalsobringssomeproblemshugedevelopmentinvestmentandinfeasibleapplicationinfreefromfeatureobjecttraceplanningsimulation.InallusiontoparallelNCmachinetoolapplication,thispaperintroducesadevelopmentmethodofkinematicsimulationusingOpenGLAPIfunctionswithMSVisualC4.2Thestructureofa6SPSparallelNCmachinetoolAsshowninFig.1,OXYZ−isastaticcoordinateofthebaseplatformandPXYZ′′′′−isamobilecoordinateofthemobileplatform.AccordingtothereversekinematicmodeljjjIPPAB−1wherejIisthevectoroflegdirection,Pisthevectorfromtheoriginpointofthemobilecoordinatetotheoriginpointofthestaticcoordinate.jPisthevectorfromthecenterpointofthemobileplatformspherejointtotheoriginpointofthemobilecoordinate.jBisthevectorfromtheoriginpointofthestaticplatformtothecenterpointoftheuniversejoint.Aisthetransformationmatrix,alsocalleddirectioncosinematrix.Inthepastdecades,Stewartplatformresearchhasreceivedagreatdealofattentionandhasbeenappliedinawidevarietyofequipment,suchasflightsimulators,parallelrobotmanipulators,machinetools,sixdegreesoffreedomcoordinatemeasuringdevices.Inpracticalterms,the6SPSparallelNCmachinetoolisbasedontheStewartplatformandhassomepotentiallyadvantageouspoints,suchassimplerstructure,higherRESEARCHARTICLEZHANGjianmin,FANYu,JIADongyun,ZOUQiuling,WUYingSchoolofMechanicalEngineeringandAutomation,BeijingInstituteofTechnology,Beijing100081,ChinaEmailzjmmh.bit.edu.cn174stiffness,heavierloadingability,morestablekinematicproperties.Fig.1SixSPSstructureandvectorsketch.a6SPSparallelNCtoolsketchb1.Staticpiatform2.Universaljoint3.leg4.spherejoint5.mainspindle6.mobileplatform7.baseplatformFig.2Themaininterfaceofthesimulationsystem3ThesignificanceofmanufacturingsimulationThemovementofthe6SPSparallelNCmachinetoolisconfinedbyitsownstructuralcharacteristicsThelengthofeachlegconfinestheposeandposition.Theswinganglelimitofthespheresubsidiaryream.TheinterferencebetweenthelegsTherefore,thecuttingtoolofparallelmachinetoolsmustbeplacedinsideacertainworkingspace.However,whenmanufacturingacomplicatedfreefromsurfacepart,itisdifficulttodeterminewhetherthecuttingtoolissafelyplacedinsidetheworkingspaceandwhetherthemanufacturingcodeisinaccurate,incomplete,orunreasonable.Codevalidation,includingformatchecks,completenesschecks,reasonablenesschecks,andlimitchecks,mustbeperformedbyasimulationsystembeforethemanufacturingprocessbegins.ThemanufacturingprocessissimulatedtoensurethattheNCprogramiserrorfreeandcapableofperformingitsintendedtrace.Obviously,alloftheseprocesseshavepracticalsignificancetothemanufactureofparallelmachinetools.4ThedesignofthesimulationsoftwarePrincipleThesimulationsoftwarewasdevelopedinMSVisualCusingOpenGLAPIfunctionsrunningunderWindows2000.Accordingtotheprincipleofmodulardesign,thesystemdevelopmentusesobjectorientedprogrammingtechniquestoensuresystemstructuremodularizationanddiscreteness.Toensuretherobustnessandreproducibilityofthesystem,allcoremodulesusetheComponentObjectModelanddatacommunicationbetweensystemmodulesisbasedontheCommunicationComponentInterface.Theinputsourceoftraceplanningsimulationisthecuttingtoolposefile,whichincludestheCartesiancoordinatesofthecuttingtoolpointandthenormalvectorofthecuttingtoolbar.Thesimulationisperformedaccordingtoalinearpatternandtimelinearity.Underthecircumstancesthatthesimulationprocessdoesnotgobeyondanyconfinedcondition,thetraceplanfilewillproducethefileoftheextensionquantityofthoselegsthatisrequiredbythepracticaluses.ThemaininterfaceofthesimulationsystemisshowninFig.2.Somemainfunctionoptionsarelisted,suchastrackprogramming,simulation,andelongationoftheextensionlegs,etc.Themainviewframeisathreedimensional3Dsubstantialmodeloftheparallelmachinetool.Ontherightareaofthemainviewframe,threesubframesareplacedfromtoptobottom,whichareusedrespectivelytocontrolthevisualangleforobservationandtoshowtheparameteroftheknifesposepositionandtheextensionquantityofthoselegs.ThemoduleofthemanufacturingprocesssimulationsystemisshowninFig.3.TwocoremodulesaretheTracePlanProgrammingmoduleandtheManufacturingProcessSimulationmodule.Theformerusesthetraceplanfiletoproducethecorrespondingcuttingtoolpositionfilethelatterinputsthecuttingtoolpositionfiletosimulatethemanufacturingprocess.175Fig.3Thestructureof6SPSparallelNCmachinetoolmanufacturingprocesssimulationsystemWhenthekinematicsimulationperformstheinitialization,theFileFormatmoduleopensthetraceplanfileandchecksthefiledata,thenconfiguresthesystemdataaftercheckingthevalidityofthetooltracedata,thesystembeginstoperformthemanufacturingprocesskinematicsimulationaccordingtothecuttingtooltracefile.Duringthisprocess,thesystemonlychecksthesafetyoftheworkingspace.Assoonastheconfinedconditionexists,thecorrespondingjudgmentfunctionandactionareactivated.Soawarningisgivenautomaticallytoinformtheuserwhathappenedandwhaterroroccurred.Inordertosimulatethepracticalmanufacturingprocess,theparameterofavirtual3Dobjectmustbeidenticalwiththeparameterofthepracticalparallelmachinetool.AllofthesedataarequeriedbythesystemandareconfiguredintheParameterConfigurationmodule.Thesedatarepresentthepracticalsizeof6SPS,suchastheabsolutecoordinatevalueofsixuniversaljointcentersonthestaticplatform,thecoordinatevalueofthesixspherejointcentersonthemobileplatforminthemobilereferenceframe,theinitiallengthoftheleg,thediameterandthelengthofthecuttingtoolbar,andthespherereamradius,etc.ThefunctionofthePoseandVectorCheckmoduleistocheckthevalidityofthetracedataanddeterminewhetherthecuttingtoolposeisinsidetheworkingspace.TherelationshipbetweenthecoordinatesofthecuttingtoolpointandthedirectioncosineofthenormalvectorisgovernedbyEq.1.Accordingtothislaw,theparametersofthemobileplatform,includingthecoordinatesofthesixsphericaljointcenters,arecalculated.Thenthelengthsofthesixlegsarecalculated.ThedataflowchartisshowninFig.4.TheinputsourceoftheManufacturingProcessSimulationmoduleisthecuttingtooltracefilethisfileincludesinformationaboutthepositionX,Y,Zandposea,b,cofthecuttingtool,whereX,Y,Zarethepositioncoordinatesofthecuttingtoolpointanda,b,ctheposewhichcanbewrittenintheformofthreedirectioncosines.Thesystemloadsthesedataintoadatabufferandthenexchangesthedoubledisplaybuffer,sothemanufacturingprocesscanbedisplayeddynamically.ThedataflowchartisshowninFig.5.Fig.4DataflowoftheposeandvectorcheckmoduleFig.5TheflowofkinematicsimulationThecontrolfile,alsocalledthepracticalmanufacturingcontrolPMCfile,istheNCcodedriverfile.Ingeneral,thetracefileisatemporarymiddlefilethatcontainsinformationabouttraceplanning.Aftercheckingtheposeandvectorofthetracefile,thevalidityandcorrectnesscanbeensured.Afterthekinematicsimulationisperformed,therationalityoftraceplanningcanbeconfirmed.However,practicalmanufacturingrequiresthePMCfile.Accordingtothecontrolrequirementsoftheparallelmachinetool,theFileFormatI/OCheckmoduleproducestheconsistent176PMCfilewiththetracefile.ThedataflowoftheresultingPMCfileisshowninFig.6,whererfileisthestateparameter.Fig.6DataflowoftheproducedPMCfileTheTracePlanmoduleisthecoremoduleinthemanufacturingprocesskinematicsimulation.Whenthesurfaceofpracticalpartsisselected,thismoduleproducesthecuttingtooltraceplanfile.Thestepsintheconfigurationareasfollowschoosethetracetypeinputtheparameter.Setthetraceorder,suchasparallellinemode,borderlinemode,andsoon.Afteralltherequiredparametervaluesareconfigured,theTracePlanmodulefiguresoutthediscretepointscoordinatevalueofthespecialsurfaceaccordingtotherequirementsofinterpolationprecisionandEq.1.ThesedataarewrittenintothetracefileusingaparticulardataformatshowninFig.7.Fig.7Cuttingtooltracefile5simulationofoddleafhyperboloidOddleafhyperboloidisakindoftypicalcomplicatedsurfaceitsequationis2222221xyzabc−2wherea10,b6,c8.Thestepsinthesimulationareasfollowsconfigurethetracetypeandinputtheneededparameters,suchasvelocity,interpolationperiods,andlengthofthecuttingtoolbar.ThenclickonthemenuofTrace/Createfiletoproducethetracefile,asshowninFig.9.Aftercheckingthefilevalidity,clickthebuttontobeginthemanufacturingprocesssimulation.Thesystemgetsthedatafromthebufferatthesametimeanddisplaystheposition,pose,andlengthofthelegs.Ifthetracefilehasanerror,thesystemchecksitanddisplaysamessagetoindicatetheerrortypeandposition.6ConclusionsIngeneral,thekinematiccontroloftheparallelmachinetoolismorecomplexbecauseofthenonlinearrelationship.Inordertomaintainthesafetyofthemanufacturingprocess,theMaccontrolcodemustbecheckedbythesimulationsystembeforethepracticalmanufacturingbeginsfurthermore,therationalityofthetracefileisconfirmedbythesimulationsystem.Inthemanufacturingprocesssimulationapplicationofoddleafhyperboloid,ifthetracefilehasanerror,thesystemcanfindthiserrortoavoidanymalfunction.Thisapplicationdemonstratesthepracticalvalueofthesimulationsystem.AcknowledgemetsThisresearchworkwassupportedinpartbytheDefenseScienceandTechnologyCommitteeFoundationandtheDoctoralProgrammeFoundationoftheInstituteofHigherEducationofChina.References1.ZhenHuang,LingfuKong,YuefaFang,Thetheoryandcontrolapplicationofparallelrobots,PekingChinaMachinePress,19972.XiangqingYang,PeiqingPei,GuanghongDuang,Theresearchanddevelopmentofvirtualspindletool,ChinaMechanicalEngineering,19983.JuanHao,ThefoundationtheorystudyandapplicationdevelopmentofBKXIparallelNCmanufacturingtoolD.Pekinginstituteoftechnology,20014.ZhirangYe,ChunrongJi,OpenGLapplicationinrobotsimulationsystem,Machinetoolandhydraulicpressure,1999341−43
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