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中国矿业大学2007届本科生毕业设计第1页英文原文AbstractThefactorsaffectingtheperformanceof90kWshieldedroadheaderisinvestigatedindetailinatunnelexcavatedforNuhCementFactory.Thefirstpartofthetunnelishorizontalandthesecondpartisinclinedwith9_andexcavateduphill.TunnelpassesthroughaformationoftheUpperCretaceousagewithnodularmarl,carbonatedclaystone,thinandthicklaminatedlimestone.Wateringresschangesfrom0to11l/min.Insixdifferentzonesitisfoundthattherockcompressivestrengthchangedfrom20to45MPa,tensilestrengthfrom1to4MPa,specificenergyfrom11to16MJ/m3,plasticlimitfrom15to29,liquidlimitfrom27to43andwaterabsorptionfrom4to18involume.Detailedinsituobservationsshowthatindryzonesforthesamerockstrengththeinclinationofthetunnelandthestratahelptoincreasetheinstantaneouscuttingratefrom10to25solidbankm3/cuttinghour.Theeffectofwateroncuttingrateisdramatic.InthezoneswheretheplasticlimitandtheamountofAl2O3islow,instantaneouscuttingrateincreasesfrom34to50solidbankm3/cuttinghourwithincreasingwatercontentfrom3.5to11l/min.However,inthestratahavinghighwaterabsorptioncharacteristicandhighamountofAl2O3,cuttingratedecreasesconsiderablyduetothestickymud,causingproblemtothecutterhead.Excavation,muckloadingandsupportworksareperformedseparatelyduetosafetyconcernsinthewetandinclinedsectionswhichreducedthemachineutilizationtimefrom38to8.Theinformationgatheredisbelievedtoforma中国矿业大学2007届本科生毕业设计第2页soundbasisincontributingtheperformancepredictionofroadheadersindifficultgroundconditions._2004ElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved.KeywordsTunnelexcavationRoadheaderperformancepredictionCorecuttingtestSpecificenergy1.IntroductionTheapplicationofroadheadersindifficultgroundconditions,inrecentyears,hasincreasedconsiderablyinbothcivilandminingengineeringfields.Thepredictionofinstantaneousnetcuttingrateandmachineutilizationtime,determiningdailyadvancerates,playsanimportantroleinthetimeschedulingofthetunnelingprojects,hence,indeterminingtheeconomyoftunnelexcavation.Althoughmanyroadheaderperformancepredictionmodelswerepublishedinthepast,thepublisheddataondifficultgroundconditionssuchastheeffectsoftunnelinclination,wateringress,excessivefracturezones,etc.ondailyadvancerateswerequitescarce.Sandbak1985andDouglas1985usedarockclassificationsystemtoexplainthechangesofroadheaderadvanceratesatSanManuelCopperMineinaninclineddriftatan11grade.Theyconcludedthatforaperformancepredictionmodel,engineeringaspectsoftheroadheadershadtobealsoincorporatedwiththegeomechanicalfactors.FielddataonroadheadermachineperformanceininclinedtunnelswerealsopublishedbyUnrugandWhitsell1984fora14_slopeinPyroCoalMine,byNavinetal.1985at13_and15_inclinesinoilshalemineandbyLivingstoneandDorricott1995inBallaratEastGoldMine.Themajorityofperformancepredictionmodelsweredevelopedforhorizontaltunnels.Bilgin1983developedamodelbasedonspecificenergyobtainedfromdrillingrateofapercussivedrill.ModelsforwidelyjointedrockformationsweredescribedbySchneider1988,ThuroandPlinninger1998,1999,Gehring1989,1997,Dunetal.1997andUehigashietal.1987.Theyreportedthatforagivencuttingpower,cuttingratesofroadheadersdecreaseddramaticallywithincreasingvaluesofrockcompressivestrength.Copuretal.1997,1998statedthatifthepowerandtheweightoftheroadheaderswereconsideredtogether,inadditiontorockcompressivestrength,thecuttingratepredictionsweremorerealistic.Anotherconceptofpredictingmachineinstantaneouscuttingratewastousespecificenergydescribedastheenergyspenttoexcavateaunitvolumeofrockmaterial.FarmerandGarrity1987andPoole1987showedthatforagivenpowerofroadheader,excavationrateinsolidbankm3/cuttinghourmightbepredictedusingspecificenergyvaluesgivenasinthefollowingequation,中国矿业大学2007届本科生毕业设计第3页whereSEisthespecificenergy,rcistherockcompressivestrengthandEistherockelasticmodulus.WidelyacceptedrockclassificationandassessmentfortheperformanceestimationofroadheadersisbasedonthespecificenergyfoundfromcorecuttingtestsMcFeatSmithandFowell,1977,1979FowellandJohnson,1982Fowelletal.,1994.DetailedlaboratoryandinsituinvestigationscarriedoutbyMcFeatSmithandFowell1977,1979showedthattherewasacloserelationshipbetweenspecificenergyvaluesobtainedfromcorecuttingtestsandcuttingratesformediumandheavyweightroadheadersseparately.Theyreportedalsothattoolconsumptionmightbepredictedfromweightlossofcutterusedincorecuttingtest.Rockcuttabilityclassificationbasedoncorecuttingtestisusuallycriticizedasthattheeffectofrockdiscontinuitiesarenotreflectedinperformanceprediction.Bilginetal.1988,1990,1996,1997developedaperformanceequationbasedonrockcompressivestrengthandrockqualitydesignationasgivenbelowwhereICRistheinstantaneouscuttingrateinsolidbankm3/cuttinghour,Pisthepowerofcuttingheadinhp,RMCIistherockmasscuttabilityindex,rcistheuniaxialcompressivestrengthinMPaandRQDistherockqualitydesignationinpercent.Dunetal.1997comparedthemodelsdescribedbyBilginetal.1988,1990andMcFeatSmithandFowell1977,1979inaresearchworkcarriedoutatKumbaldaMinewhereaVoestAlpineAM75roadheaderwasutilized.Twodistinctgroupsofdatawereevident.ThedatagroupedaroundBilginlinewasstronglyinfluencedbythejointingandweaknesszonespresentinrockmass.TheothergroupofdataonthelineproducedbyMcFeatSmithandFowellcorrespondedtoareaswherelessjointingandfewerweaknesszoneswerepresent.Oneofthemostacceptedmethodtopredictthecuttingrateofanyexcavatingmachineistouse,cuttingpower,specificenergyobtainedfromfullscalecuttingtestsandenergytransferratiofromthecuttingheadtotherockformationasinthefollowingequationRostamietal.,1994RostamiandOzdemir,1996whereICRisthinstantaneousproductionrateinsolidbankm3/cuttinghour,PisthecuttingpowerofthemechanicalminerinkW,SEoptistheoptimumspecificenergyinkWh/m3andkisenergytransfercoefficientdependingonthemechanicalminerutilized.Rostamietal.1994stronglyemphasizedthatthepredictedvalueofcuttingratewasmorerealisticifspecificenergyvaluein中国矿业大学2007届本科生毕业设计第4页equationwasobtainedfromfullscalelinearcuttingtestsinoptimumconditionsusingreallifecutters.Rostamietal.1994pointedoutthatkchangedbetween0.45and0.55forroadheadersandfrom0.85to0.90forTBMs.Bilginetal.2000showedintheirexperimentalandnumericalstudiesthatperformanceofmechanicalminerswasaffecteduptoacertaindegreebytheearthand/oroverburdenpressureandstress.Copuretal.2001showedthatspecificenergyobtainedfromfullscalelinearcuttingtestsinoptimumcuttingconditionswashighlycorrelatedtorockuniaxialcompressivestrengthandBraziliantensilestrength.Theeffectoftunnelinclination,wateringressandthepresenceofclayonroadheaderperformancewasnotclearlyshownintheabovementionedworks.Themainobjectiveoftheresearchstudydescribedinthispaperistocontributetheperformancepredictionmodelsindifficultgroundconditions.Hereketunnelischosenforthispurpose.Thefirst50mofthetunnelishorizontal.Later225misinclinedwith9_andexcavateduphill.Thereisexcessivewateringressandclayinsomesections.DetailedinsituobservationsaremadeduringthetunnelexcavationandrocksamplesarecollectedfortestinginthelaboratoriesoftheMiningEngineeringDepartmentofIstanbulTechnicalUniversityforgroundcharacterization.antaneouscuttingrateoftheroadheaderusedintheprojectisexplainedbysomegeologicalandgeotechnicalfactors.Factorsaffectingmachineutilizationtimeisalsoexplainedindetail.2.DescriptionofthetunnelprojectTheHerekeTunnel,locatedinTurkeyinthecityofKocaelinexttoIstanbul,wasconstructedformaterialtransportationbetweentheNuhCementDockandNuhCementPlant.Tunnelingwasthebestchoicetoavoidtrafficdisruption,sincetherewasarailway,highwayandfreewayonthesurface.ThecontractorfirmSTFACo.wasawardedthetunnelingproject.Thetunnelincluded50mofhorizontalsectionchainage0–50m,whereexcavationstartedup,and225mof9_inclinedsectionchainage50–275m.Theexcavationwasperformedinahorizontallystraightalignmentthroughsedimentaryformationsincludingdrychainage0–50and150–275mandwetsectionschainage50–150.Excavationwasperformedbyusingashieldedroadheader,HerrenknechtSM1with90kWofcutterheadpower,intheexcavationdiameterof3.48m.Twoshaftsweresunkintheplantsideofthetunnel.Thefirstshaftwasplannedtobeusedforcementtransportationfromtheplanttothedockviasteel
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