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PartoneWhatisPoetryPOETRYmightbedefinedasakindoflanguagethatsaysmoreandsaysitmoreintensivelythandoesordinarylanguage.POETRYisakindofsaying.AinadditiontoBaandbPOETRYisanartforminwhichhumanlanguageisusedforitsaestheticqualitiesinadditionto,orinsteadof,itsnotionalandsemanticcontent.Itconsistsoforalorliteraryworksinwhichlanguageisusedinamannerthatisfeltbyitsuserandaudiencetodifferfromordinaryprose.Itmayusecondensedorcompressedformtoconveyemotionorideastothereadersorlistenersmindorearitmayalsousedevicessuchasassonanceandrepetitiontoachievemusicalorincantatoryeffects.Poemsfrequentlyrelyfortheireffectonimagery,wordassociationandthemusicalqualitiesofthelanguageused.Becauseofitsnatureofemphasizinglinguisticformratherthanusinglanguagepurelyforitscontent,poetryisnotoriouslydifficultytotranslatefromonelanguageintoanother.TheEagleHeclapsthecragwithcrookedhandsClosetothesuninlonelylands,Ringedwiththeazureworld,hestands.ThewrinkledseabeneathhimcrawlsHewatchesfromhismountainwalls,Andlikeathunderbolthefalls.Alfred,LordTennyson18091892Redwheelbarrowsomuchdependsuponaredwheelbarrowglazedwithrainwaterbesidethewhitechickens.WilliamCarlosWilliams18831963DustofFrostThewayacrowShookdownonmeThedustofsnowFromahemlocktreeHasgivenmyheartAchangeofmoodAndsavedsomepartOfadayIhadrued.RobertFrost18741963TheCarefulAnglerThecarefulanglerchosehisnookAtmorningbytheliliedbrook,AndallthenoonhisrodhepliedBythatromanticriverside.SoonastheeveninghoursdeclineTranquillyhellreturntodine,And,breathingforthapiouswish,Willcramhisbellywithfulloffish.RobertLouisStevenson18501849ThereisnoFrigatelikeaBookThereisnofrigatelikeabookTotakeuslandsaway,NoranycourserlikeapageOfprancingpoetryThistraversemaythepooresttakeWithoutoppressoftollHowfrugalisthechariotThatbearsthehumansoulEmilyDickinson18301886ParttwoCharacteristicsofpoetryPoetryaswholeisconcernedwithallkindsofexperiencebeautifulorugly,strangeorcommon,nobleorignoble,actualorimaginary.1.Poetryisthemostcondensedandconcentratedformofliterature,sayingmostinthefewestnumberofwords.2.Poetryisakindofmultidimensionallanguage.intellectual,sensuous,emotionalandimaginative.AManHeKilledThomasHardy18401928HadheandIbutmetBysomeoldancientinn,WeshouldhavesatusdowntowetRightmanyanipperkinButrangedasinfantry,Andstaringfacetoface,Ishotathimasheatme,Andkilledhiminhisplace.IshothimdeadbecauseBecausehewasmyfoe,JustsomyfoeofcoursehewasThatsclearenoughalthoughHethoughthedlist,perhaps,OffhandlikejustasIWasoutofworkhadsoldhistrapsNootherreasonwhy.Yes,quaintandcuriouswarisYoushootafellowdownYoudtreat,ifmetwhereanybaris,Orhelptohalfacrown.TheSickRoseWilliamBlake17571827ORose,thatartsickTheinvisiblewormThatfliesinthenightInthehowlingstorm,HasfoundoutthybedOfcrimsonjoy,AndhisdarksecretloveDoesthylifedestroy.TheRoadNotTakenRobertFrostTworoadsdivergedinayellowwood,AndsorryIcouldnottravelbothAndbeonetraveler,longIstoodAndlookeddownasoneasfarasIcouldTowhereitbentintheundergrowthThentaketheother,asjustasfair,Andhavingperhapsthebetterclaim,BecauseitwasgrassyandwantedwearThoughasforthatthepassingthereHaswornthemreallyaboutthesame,AndboththatmorningequallylayInleavesnostephadtroddenblack.Oh,IkeptthefirstforanotherdayYetknowinghowwayleadsontoway,IdoubtedifIshouldevercomeback.IshallbetellingthiswithasighSomewhereagesandageshenceTworoadsdivergedinawood,andIItooktheonelesstraveledby,Andthathasmadeallthedifference.MeetingatnightRobertBrowning18121889ThegrayseaandthelongblacklandAndtheyellowhalfmoonlargeandlowAndthestartledlittlewavesthatleapInfieryringletsfromtheirsleep,AsIgainthecovewiththepushingprow,Andquenchitsspeedintheslushysand.ThenamileofwarmseascentedbeachThreefieldsofcrosstillafarmappearsTapatthepane,thequicksharpscratchAndbluespurtofalightedmatch,Andavoicelessloud,thrositsjoysandfearsThanthetwoheartsbeatingeachtoeachPartingatmorningRoundthecapeofasuddencamethesea,AndthesunlookedoverthemountainsrimAndstraightwasapathofgoldforhim,Andstraightwastheneedofworldofmenforme.PartThreeHowtoexperiencepoemsHowtoexperiencepoems1.Readapoemmorethanonce.Itstobehungonthewallofonesmind2.Keepadictionarybyyouanduseit.3.Readsoastohearthesoundsofthewordsinyourmind.Poetryiswrittentobehearditsmeaningsareconveyedthroughsoundaswellasthroughprint.Oneshouldreadapoemasslowlyaspossible.Andyoushouldlipreaditatleast.4.Alwayspaycarefulattentiontowhatthepoemissaying.Oneshouldmaketheutmostefforttofollowthethoughtcontinuouslyandtograspthefullimplicationsandsuggestions.AndontheveryfirstreadingyoushoulddeterminetheSUBJECTsoftheVERBsandtheANTECEDENTsofthePRONOUNS.5.Practicereadingpoemsaloud.a.Readitaffectionately,butnotaffectedly.B.Readingtoofastoffersgreaterdangerthanreadingslowly.Readitslowlyenoughsothateachwordisclearanddistinctandsothatthemeaninghastimetosinkin.YOURORDINARYRATEOFREADINGWILLPROBABLYBETOOFAST.C.Readapoemsothattherhythmicalpatternisfeltbutnotexaggerated.6.Askourselvesthefollowingquestionssoastoaidusintheunderstandingofapoem.a.Whoisthespeakerandwhatistheoccasionb.Whatisthecentralpurposeofthepoemc.Bywhatmeansisthatpurposeachievedd.Whatprovokesthesaying7.Whilereadingapoem,alwaysmaintaintheutmostmentalalertness.8.Tryyourutmosttoaccumulateyourexperienceoflifeandtheworld,directlyorindirectly,suchasbyreading,watchingTVandseeingfilm.WilliamShakespeare.1564–1616SonnetXVIII.ShallIcomparetheetoasummersdaySHALLI|compare|theeto|asu|mmersdayaThouart|morelove|lyand|moretem|peratebRoughwinds|doshake|thedar|lingbuds|ofMay,aAndsu|mmerslease|hathall|tooshort|adatebSometime|toohot|theeye|ofhea|venshines,c5AndoftenishisgoldcomplexiondimmddAndeveryfairfromfairsometimedeclines,cBychance,ornatureschangingcourseuntrimmddButthyeternalsummershallnotfade,eNorlosepossessionofthatfairthouowst,f10Norshalldeathbragthouwanderstinhisshade,eWhenineternallinestotimethougrowstfSolongasmencanbreathe,oreyescansee,gSolonglivesthis,andthisgiveslifetothee.gTHOMASGRAY17161771465ElegywritteninaCountryChurchyardTHECurfewtollstheknellofpartingday,Thelowingherdwindslowlyoerthelea,Theplowmanhomewardplodshiswearyway,Andleavestheworldtodarknessandtome.Nowfadestheglimmeringlandscapeonthesight,Andalltheairasolemnstillnessholds,Savewherethebeetlewheelshisdroningflight,AnddrowsytinklingslullthedistantfoldsSavethatfromyonderivymantledtowrThemopingowldoestothemooncomplainOfsuchas,wandringnearhersecretbowr,Molestherancientsolitaryreign.Beneaththoseruggedelms,thatyewtreesshade,Whereheavestheturfinmanyamouldringheap,Eachinhisnarrowcellforeverlaid,TherudeForefathersofthehamletsleep.ThebreezycallofincensebreathingMorn,Theswallowtwittringfromthestrawbuiltshed,Thecocksshrillclarion,ortheechoinghorn,Nomoreshallrousethemfromtheirlowlybed.Forthemnomoretheblazinghearthshallburn,OrbusyhousewifeplyhereveningcareNochildrenruntolisptheirsiresreturn,Orclimbhiskneestheenviedkisstoshare.Oftdidtheharvesttotheirsickleyield,TheirfurrowoftthestubbornglebehasbrokeHowjocunddidtheydrivetheirteamafieldHowbowdthewoodsbeneaththeirsturdystrokeLetnotAmbitionmocktheirusefultoil,Theirhomelyjoys,anddestinyobscureNorGrandeurhearwithadisdainfulsmileTheshortandsimpleannalsofthepoor.Theboastofheraldry,thepompofpowr,Andallthatbeauty,allthatwealtheergave,AwaitsalikethinevitablehourThepathsofgloryleadbuttothegrave.Noryou,yeProud,imputetoThesethefault,IfMemoryoertheirTombnoTrophiesraise,WherethroughthelongdrawnaisleandfrettedvaultThepealinganthemswellsthenoteofpraise.CanstoriedurnoranimatedbustBacktoitsmansioncallthefleetingbreathCanHonoursvoiceprovokethesilentdust,OrFlattrysoothethedullcoldearofdeathPerhapsinthisneglectedspotislaidSomeheartoncepregnantwithcelestialfireHands,thattherodofempiremighthaveswayd,Orwakedtoecstasythelivinglyre.ButKnowledgetotheireyesheramplepageRichwiththespoilsoftimedidneerunrollChillPenuryrepressdtheirnoblerage,Andfrozethegenialcurrentofthesoul.FullmanyagemofpurestraysereneThedarkunfathomdcavesofoceanbearFullmanyaflowerisborntoblushunseen,Andwasteitssweetnessonthedesertair.SomevillageHampdenthatwithdauntlessbreastThelittletyrantofhisfieldswithstood,SomemuteingloriousMilton,heremayrest,SomeCromwellguiltlessofhiscountrysblood.Thapplauseoflistningsenatestocommand,Thethreatsofpainandruintodespise,Toscatterplentyoerasmilingland,Andreadtheirhistoryinanationseyes,TheirlotforbadenorcircumscribedaloneTheirgrowingvirtues,buttheircrimesconfinedForbadetowadethroughslaughtertoathrone,Andshutthegatesofmercyonmankind,Thestrugglingpangsofconscioustruthtohide,Toquenchtheblushesofingenuousshame,OrheaptheshrineofLuxuryandPrideWithincensekindledattheMusesflame.FarfromthemaddingcrowdsignoblestrifeTheirsoberwishesneverlearndtostrayAlongthecoolsequesterdvaleoflifeTheykeptthenoiselesstenoroftheirway.YetevnthesebonesfrominsulttoprotectSomefrailmemorialstillerectednigh,Withuncouthrhymesandshapelesssculpturedeckd,Imploresthepassingtributeofasigh.Theirname,theiryears,speltbythunletterdmuse,TheplaceoffameandelegysupplyAndmanyaholytextaroundshestrews,Thatteachtherusticmoralisttodie.Forwho,todumbForgetfulnessaprey,Thispleasinganxiousbeingeerresignd,Leftthewarmprecinctsofthecheerfulday,NorcastonelonginglingringlookbehindOnsomefondbreastthepartingsoulrelies,SomepiousdropstheclosingeyerequiresEenfromthetombthevoiceofNaturecries,EeninourAsheslivetheirwontedFires.Forthee,who,mindfulofthunhonourddead,DostintheselinestheirartlesstalerelateIfchance,bylonelycontemplationled,Somekindredspiritshallinquirethyfate,HaplysomehoaryheadedSwainmaysay,OfthaveweseenhimatthepeepofdawnBrushingwithhastystepsthedewsawayTomeetthesunupontheuplandlawn.ThereatthefootofyondernoddingbeechThatwreathesitsoldfantasticrootssohigh,Hislistlesslengthatnoontidewouldhestretch,Andporeuponthebrookthatbabblesby.Hardbyyonwood,nowsmilingasinscorn,Muttringhiswaywardfancieshewouldrove,Nowdrooping,woefulwan,likeoneforlorn,Orcrazedwithcare,orcrossdinhopelesslove.OnemornImissdhimonthecustomdhill,AlongtheheathandnearhisfavritetreeAnothercame,noryetbesidetherill,Norupthelawn,noratthewoodwasheThenextwithdirgesdueinsadarraySlowthroughthechurchwaypathwesawhimborne.ApproachandreadforthoucanstreadthelayGravedonthestonebeneathyonagedthorn.PartFourDramaticSituationballadinliterature,short,narrativepoemusuallyrelatingasingle,dramaticevent.Twoformsoftheballadareoftendistinguishedthefolkballad,datingfromaboutthe12thcent.,andtheliteraryballad,datingfromthelate18thcent.1TheFolkBalladTheanonymousfolkballadorpopularballad,wascomposedtobesung.Itwaspassedalongorallyfromsingertosinger,fromgenerationtogeneration,andfromoneregiontoanother.Duringthisprogressionaparticularballadwouldundergomanychangesinbothwordsandtune.ThemedievalorElizabethanballadthatappearsinprinttodayisprobablyonlyoneversionofmanyvariantforms.2Primarilybasedonanolderlegendorromance,thistypeofballadisusuallyashort,simplesongthattellsadramaticstorythroughdialogueandaction,brieflyalludingtowhathasgonebeforeanddevotinglittleattentiontodepthofcharacter,setting,ormoralcommentary.Itusessimplelanguage,aneconomyofwords,dramaticcontrasts,epithets,setphrases,andfrequentlyastockrefrain.Thefamiliarstanzaformisfourlines,withfourorthreestressesalternatingandwiththesecondandfourthlinesrhyming.3Morethan300EnglishandScottishfolkballads,datingfromthe12thtothe16thcent.,areextant.Fivemajorclassesoftheballadcanbedistinguishedthehistorical,suchasOtterburnandTheBonnyEarloMoraytheromantic,suchasBarbaraAllanandTheDouglasTragedythesupernatural,suchasTheWifeofUshersWellthenautical,suchasHenryMartinandthedeedsoffolkheroes,suchastheRobinHoodcycle.5TheLiteraryBalladTheliteraryballadisanarrativepoemcreatedbyapoetinimitationoftheoldanonymousfolkballad.Usuallytheliteraryballadismoreelaborateandcomplexthepoetmayretainonlysomeofthedevicesandconventionsoftheolderversenarrative.LiteraryballadswerequitepopularinEnglandduringthe19thcent.ExamplesoftheformarefoundinKeatssLaBelleDamesansMerci,ColeridgesTheRimeoftheAncientMariner,andOscarWildesTheBalladofReadingGaol.Inmusicaballadreferstoasimple,oftensentimental,song,notusuallyafolksong.ELEGYinGreekandRomanpoetry,apoemwritteninelegiacversei.e.,coupletsconsistingofahexameterlinefollowedbyapentameterline.Theformdatesbackto7thcent.B.C.inGreeceandpoetssuchasArchilochus,Mimnermus,andTytraeus.LatertakenupanddevelopedinRomanpoetry,itwaswidelyusedbyCatullus,Ovid,andotherLatinpoets.InEnglishpoetry,sincethe16thcent.,thetermelegydesignatesareflectivepoemoflamentationorregret,withnosetmetricalform,generallyofmelancholytone,oftenondeath.Theelegycanmournoneperson,suchasWaltWhitmansWhenLilacsLastintheDooryardBloomdonthedeathofAbrahamLincoln,oritcanmournhumanityingeneral,asinThomasGraysElegyWritteninaCountryChurchyard.Inthepastoralelegy,modeledontheGreekpoetsTheocritusandBion,thesubjectandfriendsaredepictedasnymphsandshepherdsinhabitingapastoralworldinclassicaltimes.FamouspastoralelegiesareMiltonsLycidas,onEdwardKingShelleysAdonais,onJohnKeatsandMatthewArnoldsThyrsis,onArthurHughClough.HYMNsongofpraise,devotion,orthanksgiving,especiallyofareligiouscharacter1LYRICinancientGreece,apoemaccompaniedbyamusicalinstrument,usuallyalyre.Althoughthewordisstilloftenusedtorefertothesonglikequalityinpoetry,itismoregenerallyusedtorefertoanyshortpoemthatexpressesapersonalemotion,beitasonnet,ode,song,orelegy.InearlyGreekpoetryadistinctionwasmadebetweenthechoralsongandthemonodysungbyanindividual.ThemonodywasdevelopedbySapphoandAlcaeusinthe6thcent.B.C.,thechorallyricbyPindarlater.Latinlyricswerewritteninthe1stcent.B.C.byCatullusandHorace.IntheMiddleAgesthelyricformwascommoninChristianhymns,infolksongs,andinthesongsoftroubadours.IntheRenaissanceandlater,lyricpoetryachieveditsmostfinishedforminthesonnetsofPetrarch,Shakespeare,Spencer,andSidneyandintheshortpoemsofRonsard,BenJonson,JohnDonne,Herrick,andMilton.Theromanticpoetsemphasizedtheexpressionofpersonalemotionandwroteinnumerablelyrics.AmongthebestarethoseofRobertBurns,Blake,Wordsworth,Shelley,Keats,Lamartine,Hugo,Goethe,Heine,andLeopardi.Americanlyricpoetsofthe19thcent.includeEmerson,Whitman,Longfellow,Lanier,andEmilyDickinson.Amonglyricpoetsofthe20thcent.areW.B.Yeats,A.E.Housman,RainerMariaRilke,FedericoGarcíaLorca,W.H.Auden,StephenSpender,EdnaSt.VincentMillay,WallaceStevens,ElinorWylie,DylanThomas,andRobertLowell.ODEelaborateandstatelylyricpoemofsomelength.TheodedatesbacktotheGreekchoralsongsthatweresunganddancedatpubliceventsandcelebrations.TheGreekodesofPindar,whichweremodeledonthechoralodesofGreekdrama,werepoemsofpraiseorglorification.Theywerearrangedinstanzaspatternedinsetsofthreeastropheandanantistrophe,whichhadanidenticalmetricalscheme,andanepode,whichhadastructureofitsown.TheodeoftheRomanpoetsHoraceandCatullusemployedthesimplerandmorepersonallyricformofSappho,Anacreon,andAlcaeusseelyric.TheodeinlaterEuropeanliteraturewasconditionedbyboththePindaricandtheHoratianforms.DuringtheRenaissancetheodewasrevivedinItalybyGabrielloChiabreraandinFrancemostsuccessfullybyRonsard.RonsardimitatedPindarinodesonpubliceventsandHoraceinmorepersonalodes.Horatianodesalsoinfluencedthe17thcenturyEnglishpoets,especiallyBenJonson,RobertHerrick,andAndrewMarvell.MiltonsodeOntheMorningofChristsNativity1629showstheinfluenceofPindar,asdothepoemswrittenforpublicoccasionsbyhiscontemporaryAbrahamCowley.However,theCowleyanorirregularode,originatedbyCowley,disregardedthecomplicatedmetricalandstanzaicstructureofthePindaricformandemployedfreelyalteringstanzasandvaryinglines.Ingeneraltheodesofthe19thcenturyromanticpoetsKeats,Shelley,ColeridgeandofsuchlaterpoetsasSwinburneandHopkinstendtobemuchfreerinformandsubjectmatterthantheclassicalode.NotableexamplesofthethreekindsofodearePindaricode,e.g.,ThomasGraysTheProgressofPoesyHoratianode,e.g.,KeatssToAutumnCowleyanode,e.g.,WordsworthsOdeIntimationsofImmortality.Althoughtheodehasbeenseldomusedinthe20thcent.,AllenTateinOdeontheConfederateDeadandWallaceStevensinTheIdeaofOrderatKeyWestmadesuccessful,andhighlypersonal,useoftheform.pastoralliteraryworkinwhichtheshepherdslifeispresentedinaconventionalizedmanner.Inthisconventionthepurityandsimplicityofshepherdlifeiscontrastedwiththecorruptionandartificialityofthecourtorthecity.Thepastoralisfoundinpoetry,drama,andfiction,andmanysubjects,suchaslove,death,religion,andpolitics,havebeenpresentedinpastoralsettings.1InEnglishliteraturethepastoralisafamiliarfeatureofRenaissancepoetry.SirPhilipSidneysArcadia1590isanepicstoryinpastoraldress,andinTheShepheardesCalender1579EdmundSpenserusedthepastoralasavehicleforpoliticalandreligiousdiscussion.ManyofthelovelyricsofShakespeare,BenJonson,andMichaelDraytonhaveapastoralsetting.ChristopherMarlowesThePassionateShepherdtoHisLoveisoneofthemostfamouspastorallyrics,andMiltonsphilosophicalanddeeplyfeltLycidasisagreatpastoralelegy.IndramawellknownexamplesofthepastoralareShakespearesAsYouLikeIt,theshearersfeastinAWintersTale,andMiltonsmasqueComus.Althoughpoets,novelists,anddramatistsofthe19thand20thcent.haveusedpastoralsettingstocontrastsimplicityandinnocencewiththeartificialityofthecity,theyhaveseldomemployedthepastoralconventionsofTheocritusandVergil.OutstandingexceptionsareShelleysAdonaisandMatthewArnoldsThyrsis,bothsplendidpastoralelegies.PoetssuchasWordsworthandRobertFrost,becauseoftheirruralsubjectmatter,havealsobeenreferredtoaspastoralpoets.In1935theEnglishpoetandcriticWilliamEmpsonpublishedSomeVersionsofPastoral,inwhichhedefinesthepastoralastheputtingofthecomplexintothesimple,treatingtheconventionalizedbucolicsettingassuperficialhethendesignatesvariousliteraryworks,fromAlicesAdventuresinWonderlandtotheproletariannovel,asoffshootsofthepastoral.SirPatrickSpenceAnonymousThekingsitsinDumferlingtounetown,DrinkingthebludereidbloodredwineOwharwherewillIgetguidgoodsailor,TosailthisschipshipofmineUpandspakspokeaneldernknichteldknight,SatatthekingsrichtknerightkneeSirPatrickSpenceisthebestsailor,Thatsailsuponthesesea.Theking|haswri|ttena|braidbroadletter.Andsignd|itwi|withhishand,Andsent|itto|SirPa|trickSpence,Waswal|kingon|thesand.ThefirstlinethatSirPatrickredread,AloudlauchlaughlauchedheThenextlinethatSirPatrickred,Theteirtearblindedhiseeeye.Owhawhoisthishasdondonethisdeiddeed,/Thisilldeiddontome,/Tosendmeoutthistimeooftheyeiryear,/TosailupontheseMakhast,makehaste,mymirrymerrymenallOutguidschipsailsthemornemorning
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