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CGCGCGHVGHVGHVVHVHNVHGVGHVHGVHGVHJVJJHJVHJVH第一章重点单词扩充讲解1ORGANIZATIONALA组织上的由此我们可以联想到ORGANIZEV组织;ORGANIZATIONN组织;ORGANIZERN组织者请看下列习题,选择该组词里恰当的词填空1LASTWEEK,OURSCHOOL________ASPRINGOUTING2THETASKCALLSFORTHEHIGHEST_________SKILL3CHINAHASJOINEDWORLDTRADE__________4HEISTHE__________OFTHESPEECHCONTESTANSWERSORGANIZED,ORGANIZATIONAL,ORGANIZATION,ORGANIZER2OBJECTIVEN目标;A客观的,反义词SUBJECTIVE主观的3PREDICTV预言、预示;由此我们可以联想到PREDICTIONN预言;PREDICTABLEA可预测的;PREDICTORN预言家4SIMPLIFYV简化由此我们可以联想到SIMPLEA简单的;SIMPLYAD简单地,仅仅地;SIMPLIFICATIONN简化;SIMPLIFIEDA被简化的。EXERCISESFORTHEABOVEWORDS1THEMACHINEIS_____INOPERATIONBUTCOMPLEXINSTRUCTURE2SHAKESPEARE’SROMEOANDJULIETINTHEORIGINALISBEYONDOURCAPACITYWHILE____EDITIONISQUITEEASY3THEREISNOPOINTINARGUINGABOUTIT,BECAUSEITIS_______AQUESTIONOFPROCEDURE4THE______OFWORKINGPROCESSFREEDTHEWORKERSFROHEAVYLABORANSWERSSIMPLE;SIMPLIFIED;SIMPLY;SIMPLIFICATION5TENDENCYN趋势、倾向;TENDV倾向于,TENDTODOSTHEGOLDPEOPLEHAVETHETENDENCYOFGETTINGFATTEROROLDPEOPLETENDTOGETFATTER6MANAGERIALA经理的、经营上的;由此我们可以联想到MANAGEV管理、经营;MANAGEMENTN;MANAGERN经营者,管理者;MANAGEABLEA可管理的、可经营的。7ARGUEV争辩、争论,常用固定搭配ARGUWITHSBABOUT/OVERSTH由于某事而同某人争论;ARGUESBINTODOINGSTH说服某人做某事;ARGUESBOUTOFDOINGSTH说服某人不要做某事。EG1THEYOUNGCOUPLEALWAYSARGUEWITHEACHOTHEROVERTHEIRCHILD’SEDUCATION2IARGUEDHIMOUTOFGOINGONSUCHADANGEROUSJOURNEY8DEFINEV给下定义;DEFINITIONN定义9PROFITABILITYN赚钱,获利由此我们可以联想到PROFITN利润;PROFITABLEA有利可图的,有好处的;PROFITLESSA没有利润的。1HEHASMADEA_____FROMRUNNINGASMALLRESTAURANT2THEDEALWAS______TOALLOFUS3THEYVALUED_______DIFFERENTLY,WHICHLEDTODISAGREEMENTASTOTHECORRECTNESSOFDECISIONANSWERPROFIT,PROFITABLE;PROFITABILITY10CORRECTNESSN正确性;字根CORRECTA正确的;V纠正,CORRECTIONN纠正;INCORRECTA不正确的。11UNINTENDEDA非计划中的,由此我们可以联想到INTENDV打算,计划;INTENTIONN;INTENDEDA计划中的课文难句讲解、分析1ADECISIONISACHOICEMADEFROMAMONGALTERNATIVECOURSESOFACTIONTHATAREAVAILABLEP1译决策就是从几种可以选择的做法中作出选择。分析该句是主系表结构。MADEFROMAMONGALTERNATIVECOURSESOFACTIONTHATAREAVAILABLE是过去分词短语做定语修饰ACHOICE;其中THATAREAVAILABLE是定语从句修饰COURSESOFACTION像这样一环修饰一环的句子结构在英文中很普遍,因此为了看懂句子大家必须学会分析。这是整个英语学习过程中很重要的能力2THEREASONFORMAKINGADECISIONISTHATAPROBLEMEXISTS,GOALSOROBJECTIVESAREWRONG,ORSOMETHINGISSTANDINGINTHEWAYOFACCOMPLISHINGTHEMP1译做出决策的原因是因为存在问题,目标或目的有错误,或者有某种东西防碍着它们的实现。分析该句又是主系表结构。THAT引导三个并列的表语从句,①APROBLEMEXISTS,②GOALSOROBJECTIVESAREWRONG;③SOMETHINGISSTANDINGINTHEWAYOFACCOMPLISHINGTHEM。短语MAKEADECISION做出决策;STANDINTHEWAY阻挡、防碍3OFTENMANAGERSMUSTMAKEABESTGUESSATWHATTHEFUTUREWILLBEANDTRYTOLEAVEASLITTLEASPOSSIBLETOCHANCE,BUTSINCEUNCERTAINTYISALWAYSTHERE,RISKACCOMPANIESDECISIONSP2译通常管理者必须对未来的情况做出最佳预测,从而使偶然性尽可能少地发生,但因为不确定性总是存在,所以决策常伴随着风险。分析前半句是主谓宾结构。WHATTHEFUTUREWILLBE是AT的宾语;ASLITTLEASPOSSIBLE做LEAVE的宾语;SINCE引导原因状语从句,相当于BECAUSE4IFTHEREISNOCHOICE,THEREISNODECISIONTOBEMADEP3译如果没有选择,就不会有决策。分析这是一句很简单的条件状语从句,但它有一个很重要的考点TOBEMADE。这是动词不定式做定语修饰DECISION,有将来意味。比如THELASTQUESTIONTOBEDISCUSSEDTODAYISHOWTODIVIDETHEWORKAMONGOURSELVES5FORMANAGERS,EVERYDECISIONHASCONSTRAINTSBASEDONPOLICIES,PROCEDURES,LAWS,PRECEDENTS,ANDTHELIKEP3译对于管理者而言,每次决策都受到政策、程序、法律以及惯例等因素制约。分析这句话的考点是BASEDONPOLICIES,PROCEDURES,LAWS,PRECEDENTS,ANDTHELIKE。同样是过去分词短语做定语修饰CONSTRAINTS。其中词组BASEON以为基础。如THEFILMISBASEDONSSHORTSTORYBYJACKLONDON6BUTTHETENDENCYTOSIMPLIFYBLINDSTHEMTOOTHERALTERNATIVESP4译但是这种简化的倾向使得他们看不到其他可供选择的方法。分析该句主语THETENDENCYTOSIMPLIFY,谓语BLINDS;THEM是宾语。TOSIMPLIFY是定语,修饰THETENDENCY;TOOTHERALTERNATIVES是宾补。其中短语BLINDSBTOSTH使看不见;WESHOULDN’TLETOURPREJUDICESBLINDUSTOTHEFACTS7BECAUSEINDIVIDUALSANDORGANIZATIONSFREQUENTLYHAVEDIFFERENTIDEASABOUTHOWTOATTAINTHEGOALS,THEBESTCHOICEMAYDEPENDONWHOMAKESTHEDECISIONP6LINE46译因为个人(和组织)关于如何达到目的常有不同的观点,哪种是最优的选择可能要看是谁做出决策。分析这是一个由BECAUSE引导的原因状语从句。其中HOWTOATTAINTHEGOALS做介词ABOUT的宾语,WHOMAKESTHEDECISION做介词ON的宾语。8SOMEOFTHESEOBJECTIVESAREMOREIMPORTANTTHANOTHERS,BUTTHEORDERANDDEGREEOFIMPORTANCEOFTENVARYFROMPERSONTOPERSONANDFROMDEPARTMENTTODEPARTMENTP7LINE24译其中有一些目标比其它的更重要,但其顺序和重要程度因人和不同的部门而异。分析请注意比较级MOREIMPORTANTTHAN,词组VARYFROMPERSONTOPERSON译成中文因人而异,可以推出因季节而异VARYFROMSEASONTOSEASON9WHENPRESENTEDWITHACOMMONCASE,SALESMANAGERSTENDTOSEESALESPROBLEMS,PRODUCTIONMANAGERSSEEPRODUCTIONPROBLEMS,ANDSOONP7LINE57译当面对同一件日常事情时,销售经理倾向于看销售问题,而生产经理则会看生产相关的问题,等等。分析前半部分为常考内容,它是WHEN过去分词短语,构成时间状语部分。其中词组BEPRESENTEDWITHBEFACEDWITH当面对WHENFACEDWITHDIFFICULTIES,WESHOULDBEBRAVE10PEOPLEOFTENASSUMETHATADECISIONISANISOLATEDPHENOMENONP9译人们经常假设一项决策是孤立的现象。分析句子结构简单主谓宾(从句)。其中ASSUMEIMAGINE;ISOLATEDADJ孤立的。PHENOMENONN现象;复数变化较特殊PHENOMENA|重点单词、词组详讲1INTERVIEWN/V采访、面试;INTERVIEWERN采访者;INTERVIEWEEN被采访者EG1WHOSTHEMOSTFAMOUSPERSONYOUVEEVERINTERVIEWEDONTV2INATVINTERVIEWLASTNIGHT,SHEDENIEDSHEHADANYINTENTIONOFRESIGNING2CRITICISMN批评,评论;CRITICIZEV批评;CRITICALA批评的、挑剔的、关键的;CRITICN评论家,请填填看。1HEISALITERARY______2WEAREATA_______TIMEINOURHISTORY3HECANTTAKE________4THEBOYWAS______BYHISFATHERFORBEINGLATEFORSCHOOLANSWERSCRITIC,CRITICAL,CRITICISM,CRITICIZED3INDIFFERENCEN冷漠、漠不关心;INDIFFERENTA冷漠的,反义词ENTHUSIASTIC热情的CFDIFFERENTA不同的,名词DIFFERENCE;反义词SAME4INEFFICIENCYN无效,由此联想得到EFFICIENTA高效率的;EFFICIENCYNINEFFICIENTA低效率的5CONSERVATIVEA保守的、保存的;CONSERVEV保存;CONSERVATIONN6APPLYTOSBFORSTH向某人申请某物EGTHESTUDENTAPPLIEDTOTHEEMBASSYFORAVISA7TAKETHETROUBLETODOSTH不辞劳苦、费力地做某事EGIFYOUTOOKTHETROUBLETOLISTENTOWHATIWASSAYING,YOUDKNOWWHATIWASTALKINGABOUT8PUTONESELFINSOMEBODYSPLACE设身处地IFYOUPUTYOURSELFINYOURMOTHERSPLACE,YOUWILLUNDERSTANDWHYSHEISSOWORRIEDABOUTYOU9INHAND手头上有,进行中IVEGOTENOUGHMONEYINHANDTOBUYANEWCAR10TURNDOWN调小,降低,拒绝TURNDOWNTHETV,FORTHEBABYISSLEEPINGHETURNEDDOWNTHEJOBBECAUSETHEPAYISNTGOODENOUGH课文难句分析1THEKEYWORDSHEREAREPREPARATIONANDCONFIDENCE,WHICHWILLCARRYYOUFAR(P2)译这里的关键词是准备和自信,它们将使你前程远大。分析WHICHWILLCARRYYOUFAR非限定性定语从句,修饰PREPARATIONANDCONFIDENCE。另外请注意KEY关键的;PREPARATION是PREPARE的名词;CONFIDENCEN信心。CONFIDENTA有信心的;SELFCONFIDENCE自信心。2FINDOUTALLYOUCANABOUTTHEJOBYOUAREAPPLYINGFORANDTHEORIGINATIONYOUHOPETOWORKFORP4译了解你所申请的工作和你希望为之工作的组织。分析YOUAREAPPLYINGFOR定语,修饰THEJOB;YOUHOPETOWORKFOR定语修饰THEORIGINATION。词组APPLYTOSBFORSTH向某人申请什么。3ITSHOWSANUNATTRACTIVEINDIFFERENCETOYOUREMPLOYERANDTOYOURJOBP6译它表明你对雇主和你的工作的态度冷漠,不感兴趣。分析IT主语;SHOWS谓语;ANUNATTRACTIVEINDIFFERENCE宾语;TOYOUREMPLOYERANDTOYOURJOB间接宾语。SHOWSTHTOSBSHOWSBSTH另外,请注意INDIFFERENCE冷漠,漠视。4HEWANTSSOMEBODYWHOISHARDWORKINGWITHAPLEASANTPERSONALITYANDAREALINTERESTINTHEJOBP7分析WHOISHARDWORKINGWITHAPLEASANTPERSONALITYANDAREALINTERESTINTHEJOB全部都是定语,修饰SOMEBODY。注意介词WITH表示带有。。;HAVEINTERESTINSTH对有兴趣。5ANYTHINGTHATYOUFINDOUTABOUTTHEPROSPECTIVEEMPLOYERCANBEUSEDTOYOURADVANTAGEDURINGTHEINTERVIEWTOSHOWTHATYOUHAVEBOTHEREDTOMASTERSOMEFACTSABOUTTHEPEOPLEWHOYOUHOPETOWORKFORP8译你找到的任何有关未来雇主的信息在面试中都能为你所用,以表示你费了心思去掌握一些关于你希望为其工作的人的事实。分析从这个句子的长度大家也能看出这是一个复杂句。主体结构为ANYTHINGCANBEUSEDTOYOURADVANTAGETHATYOUFINDOUTABOUTTHEPROSPECTIVEEMPLOYER是定语从句;DURINGTHEINTERVIEW状语;TOSHOWTHATYOUHAVEBOTHEREDTOMASTERSOMEFACTSABOUTTHEPEOPLEWHOYOUHOPETOWORKFOR是目的状语;WHOYOUHOPETOWORKFOR是另外一个定语从句修饰THEPEOPLE词组TOYOURADVANTAGE对你有利;WORKFORSB为某人工作。6DONOTBEAFRAIDTOASKFORCLARIFICATIONOFSOMETHINGTHATHASBEENSAIDDURINGTHEINTERVIEWIFYOUWANTTOBESUREWHATWASIMPLIED,BUTDOBEPOLITEP10译面试中如果你想确切地知道某些话的含义,不要害怕请对方解释清楚,但一定要有礼貌。分析基本句型NOTBEAFRAIDTODOSTH;不要害怕去做某事;ASKFORCLARIFICATION要求澄清;THATHASBEENSAIDDURINGTHEINTERVIEW定语,修饰SOMETHING;WHATWASIMPLIED宾语;DOBEPOLITE其中DO为了强调,如DOBECAREFULIDOLOVEYOUHEDOESLIETOUS7HAVETHELETTERINVITINGYOUFORANINTERVIEWREADYTOSHOWINCASETHEREISANYDIFFICULTYINCOMMUNICATIONP16译拿着邀请你面试的通知书,以防万一交谈出现困难时显示。分析这是一个祈使句。HAVE动词,拿着;THELETTER宾语;INVITINGYOUFORANINTERVIEW现在分词做定语;READYTOSHOW状语;INCASETHEREISANYDIFFICULTYINCOMMUNICATION条件状语从句;词组THEREISSOMEDIFFICULTYINSTH/DOINGSTH在方面有困难。如WEHAVESOMEDIFFICULTYSPEAKINGENGLISHFLUENTLY8THEREISLITTLELIKELIHOODTHATAPANELOFFIVEWANTSTOGOTHROUGHTHEPROCESSOFALLSHAKINGHANDSWITHYOUINTURNP20译由五个人构成的专门小组几乎不可能轮流与你握手。分析这句话的重点在于THATAPANELOFFIVEANTSTOGOTHROUGHTHEPROCESSOFALLSHAKINGHANDSWITHYOUINTURN是一个同位语从句,是对LITTLELIKELIHOOD的解释。其中LIKELIHOODN可能性,相当于POSSIBILITY;GOTHROUGH经历;INTURN轮流。9WOULDYOUMINDREPHRASINGTHEQUESTION,PLEASEP23译您介意换个说法来问这个问题吗分析考点MINDDOINGSTH如WOULDYOUMINDTURNINGDOWNTHETV语法介绍AS的相关用法AS是一个乍一看简单,但实际在英语中用法很复杂的小词。从词类上讲,可以用作介词、副词、连词以及关系代词;从语法功能角度来看,可以构成介词宾语,引导原因状语从句,时间状语从句,方式状语从句,让步状语从句,比较状语从句和定语从句。此外AS还出现在很多固定搭配中,如ASIF,ASTHOUGH,ASLONGAS,ASTO,ASFOR,SOASTO,ETC请看下列例句,并请分析出AS的具体用法。1IWORKASANENGLISHTEACHERINAMIDDLESCHOOL2RUNASFASTASYOUCAN3YOUNGASHEIS,HEKNOWSMORETHANI4JUSTASIWASLEAVING,THETELEPHONERANG5PLEASEDOASIHAVETOLDYOU6ASIAMTHEOLDESTCHILDINMYFAMILY,IMUSTTAKECAREOFTHEOTHERCHILDREN7SUCHPEOPLEASYOUHAVEDESCRIBEDARERARENOW第二章LEARNNEWWORDSANDPHRASES1ASTRONOMERN天文学家;ASTRONOMYN天文学2EXPLODEV爆炸,由此联想EXPLOSIVEA爆炸性的/N炸药;EXPLOSIONN爆炸1WHENTHEBOMB______,MANYPEOPLEWERESERIOUSLYWOUNDED2THEUNEXPECTED________FRIGHTENEDTHELITTLEGIRL3ITMIGHTBEPOSSIBLETOCONVERT_____ENERGYINTOHEATANSWERSEXPLODED,EXPLOSION,EXPLOSIVE3DENSITYN密度;联想产生DENSEA密度大的,反义词SPARSE;DENSELYAD高密度地;DENSELYPOPULATED人口稠密的;SPARSELYPOPULATED人口稀疏的1THE____FOGKEPTTHETRAVELERSFROMFINDINGTHECORRECTDIRECTION2THEBUSINESSAREAOFTHECITYIS_____POPULATED3THISLIQUIDHASAMUCHGREATER____THANWATERANSWERSDENSE,DENSELY,DENSITY4SHRINKV收缩、退缩、缩水1ASARESULTOFCARELESSWASHING,THEJACKETHASSHRUNKTOACHILDSSIZE2THEGIRLSHRINKSATTHESIGHTOFBLOOD5MEASUREMENTN衡量、测量;由此联想MEASUREN措施/V衡量、测量;MEASURABLEA可衡量的,可测量的1WEMUSTTAKE_____TOPROTECTOURENVIRONMENT2WEHAVECOMEWITHIN______DISTANCEOFSUCCESS3CLOCKSGIVEUSA______OFTIME4THERETHERAINFALLIS______NOTININCHESBUTINFEETANSWERSMEASURES,MEASURABLE,MEASUREMENT,MEASURED6IMPLICATIONN含义、暗示;IMPLYV暗示7BASISN基础、根据,由此可以联想得到BASEN底部;V以为底,为根据;BASICA基础的,根本的;BASICALLYAD根本上来说,1IFYOUWANTTOIMPROVEYOURENGLISH,YOUMUSTHAVEASOLID______2THEFURNITUREOFOUTDORMISREALLY_____TWOBEDS,TWOCHAIRSANDTABLES3THECHARGESAREFALSEFORTHEYARENOT______ONPROVENFACTS4SINCENOBETTERPLANCANBEWORKEDOUT,WEHAVETOADOPTTHE____WORKABLEONEANSWERSBASIS,BASIC,BASED,BASICALLY8OBSERVATORYN天文台;由此可以联想得到OBSERVEV观察;OBSERVATIONN观察;OBSERVERN观察家9CONVINCINGA有说服力的,使人信服的;CONVINCEV使人信服;CONVINCEDA感到有说服力的,常见搭配CONVINCESBOFSTH;CONVINCESBTHAT1HEGAVEUSACONVINCINGSPEECH2HECONVINCEDMEFHISSINCERITY10OPERATEV运转、操作、动手术;OPERATIONN手术,操作;OPERATOR操作者11RESEARCHINTO对进行研究SHEISRESEARCHINGINTOPOSSIBLECURESFORAIDS12SWALLOWUP吞没、耗尽MANYSMALLBUSINESSESHAVEBEENSWALLOWEDUPBYLARGECOMPANIES13APPLYTOSB/STH适用于某人/某事,请对比APPLYTOSBFORSTH向某人申请某事;APPLYATOB将A应用于B1YOUSHOULDAPPLYWHATYOUHAVELEARNEDTOYOURWORK2IAPPLIEDTOHIMFORANEWJOB3THESTUDYMETHODDOESNTAPPLYTOEVERY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